Psychopathology 3 (pg150-155)

  • Created by: emg02
  • Created on: 26-08-20 11:25
View mindmap
  • Psychopathology 3 (pg 150-155)
    • The Cognitive Approach to EXPLAINING Depression
      • Beck's Negative Triad (1967)
        • Faulty information processing
          • Depressed people attend to the negative aspects of a situation and ignore the positives. They can also blow small problems out of proportion
          • Glass half empty even if just over half-full
        • Negative self-schema
          • Information people have about themselves, used to interpret themselves, in a negative way in this case.
        • The negative triad
          • For depressed people, 3 types of negative thinking create dysfunctional interpretations of these people in their own views, despite any antithesis reality= 1,2&3
          • 1. Negative view of the world ie. the world is a "cold, hard place"
            • 2. Negative view of the future ie. not much chance of economy getting better any time soon
              • 3. Negative view of the self ie. low self-esteem
      • Ellis' ABC model (1962)
        • Implied that ideal mental health is the result of rational thinking
        • Shows how irrational thoughts affect our behaviours and emotional states
        • A
          • = Activating event
          • We get depressed when we experience negative events and these trigger irrational thoughts and beliefs ie. failing an important test
        • B
          • = Beliefs
          • "Musturbation":  the belief that we must always succeed or achieve perfection
          • "I-can't-stand-it-itis": the belief that it is a major disaster whenever something doesn't go smoothly
            • Utopianism: the belief that life is always meant to be fair
        • C
          • = Consequences
            • When an activating event triggers irrational beliefs, there are emotional and behavioural consequences ie. if person believes they must succeed but they fail, this can trigger depression
    • The Cognitive Approach to TREATING Depression
      • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
        • Cognitive element
          • 1. Initial assessment which identifies and gauges the client's problems
            • 2. Client and therapist jointly identify goals and put together a plan to achieve them
              • 3. One of the central tasks is to identify where there might be negative or irrational thoughts that will benefit from challenging
        • 3-4 Behavioural element
          • 4. CBT then involves working to change negative and irrational thoughts and finally put more effective behaviours into place.
            • 3. One of the central tasks is to identify where there might be negative or irrational thoughts that will benefit from challenging
      • Most-commonly used treatment for depression
      • Also includes some behavioural elements
      • Beck's Cognitive Therapy
        • The application of his explanation ie. to identify automatic thoughts about the world, self and future and challenge them as the central component of the therapy
          • Clients are helped to test the reality of their negative beliefs, which means they may be set homework such as recording when they enjoyed an event or people were nice to them. The therapist can later produce this evidence when the client vocalises the same thoughts
      • Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT)
        • Extends the ABC model to an ABCDE model. D stands for Dispute and E for Effect
          • The aim is to identify D and then challenge the irrational thoughts. Dispute means that negative life events can be disassociated as a trigger for depression
        • Types of argument
          • Empirical: arguing if there is evidence to support the thoughts
          • Logical: Disputes whether the - thought follows through from the facts
        • Behavioural activation
          • The aim is to work with depressed individuals to gradually decrease their avoidance and isolation, and increases their engagement in activities that have been shown to improve mood ie. exercising, going out to diner etc. The therapist aims to reinforce this activity


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cognitive Psychology resources »