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  • Raine
    • Claims
      • Damage to prefrontal cortex may cause people to have altered behaviour.
      • Damage to prefrontal cortex= more aggressive or violent.
    • Components
      • Raine used a PET scanner of 41 impulsive killers who had pleaded reasons for insantiy as their defence.
      • Damage to prefrontal cortex was found in ALL killers.
      • Murderers pleading insanity had big differences in brain function compared to non-murderers.
      • PET scan shows blood flow in brain and the size of brain areas.
    • Credibility
      • Highly scientific and objective.
      • The research can be repeated easily.
      • Generalisations can be made if the sample size is large enough.
      • Doesn't say when damage to PFC happened, could've been after crime.
      • Correlation does not prove causation.
      • Reductionist- imples that PFC damage leads to violent offending.
      • Deterministic- doesn't consider environmental factors.
    • Analysis
      • Michael- 40 year old married man and had a step-daughter.
      • Suddenly, in 2000 he used *********** and molested his step-daughter.
      • Night before sentence he complained of a headache.
      • He completed a therapy programme and soon went home.
        • He was normal when he came back.
      • The headaches came back and he began to develop an interest in it again.
      • He had a tumour growing at the front of his brain.
    • Refuting Evidence
      • It can only be generalised to murderer's pleading not guilty due to reasons of insanity.
      • No non-violent criminals means the study isn't representative and can't be compared to all crime.
      • It only describes the differences in the prefrontal cortex, rather than explaining them.
      • Raine stated that the PET images weren't clear and a limit on how accurate they were.
        • So, study lacks internal validity.
    • Supporting Evidence
      • Bufkin and Luttrell
        • Used results of 17 studies that use brain imaging to study aggression in humans.
        • They found that all studies point to similar conclusions.
      • Bandura
        • Claimed if people learn aggressive behaviours, their brains might change because of it.
        • So, physical aggression may be hard wired into the brain after it's learnt through childhood.
        • This support Raine because Bandura stated changes in the brain lead to violent behaviour.


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