Russell and Copleston - contingency

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  • R + C contingency
    • Russell
      • there is no necessary existence
        • things that are necessary have to be true eg. 1+1=2
        • it is not analytic that God exists because he may not
        • God's existence is not necessary
      • fallacy of composition
        • just because everyone in the human race has a another, does not mean the universe has a mother
        • the universe doesn't need a cause
      • not everything needs a cause
        • quantum fluctuations appear and disappear without cause
      • no need for explanation
        • the universe just is
    • Copleston
      • contingent things
        • there are two kinds of existence
          • necessary
          • contingent
        • all contingent things depend on something - leads to infinite regress
        • the universe must be the cause of itself
      • Leibniz
        • there must be sufficient reason why things are as they are and not otherwise
      • infinite series problem
        • if everything is contingent - infinite regress
          • there must be one necessary being to cause everything else - God
    • criticism of Copleston
      • necessity can be applied o a being and a statement
        • there is mo such thing as a necessary being only a statement - which is also analytic
    • strengths of Copleston
      • a posteriori
      • inductive
      • empirical


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