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  • Demography 4.2
    • The ageing population
      • There is now an equal number of people aged over 65 than those under the age of 15
      • Advantage of an ageing population
        • Boosting the economy - emergence of the new market
        • Community involvement - 4.9 million people over the age of 65 participated in volunteer work.
        • Family support - Unpaid childcare and household tasks.
      • Disadvantages of an ageing population
        • A shift in the dependency ratio-more old people claiming pensions
        • An increase in one person pensioner households
        • Increase strain on public services
        • A rise in poverty and hardship
      • Social construction of ageing as a 'problem'
        • Pension time bomb. 'Ageism' portrays the old as venerable, incompetent or irrational and a burden as a society. However, in other countries the elderly are valued
      • Policy Implications - Hirsch argues that social policy must change to persuade people to retire later and more investment is needed to remain employable in later life.
    • Migration
      • Immigration is the movement of people into an area or society
      • Emigration is the movement of people out of an area of society
      • Set migration refers to the difference between the number of people emigrating and immigrating
      • Push factors = war, famine, weather and unemployment
      • Pull factors= weather, economic recession and higher employement
    • Demographic effects on family types
      • Dual-earner families = children are an economic liability
      • Teenage lone parent families = Giddens plastic sexuality
      • Childless families = children are an economic liability. Individualisation
      • Beanpole families = Increase in ageing population and lower birth rates


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