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  • Scholars
    • Descartes
      • Dualist (Cartesian Dualism)
      • Indivisibility Argument
      • Conceivability Argument
    • Ryle
      • Soft Behaviourism
    • Huxley
      • Defends Descartes’ thesis that we can explain animal’s behaviour in purely physical terms
      • Huxley likens conscious experiences to the whistle on a steam train and the body to the train itself
    • Hempel
      • Hard Behaviourism/Logical Positivism
    • Putnam
      • Defends the functionalist account of mental states
      • A critic of analytic behaviourism
      • Super-Spartans
    • Churchland
      •  “How can I assess what Mary will know and understand if she knows everything there is to know about the brain? 
    • Jackson
      • Knowledge Mary Argument (Thought Experiment)
      •  Argues that the intrinsic nature of certain mental states - qualia - is irreducible, cannot be simplified.
    • Chalmers
      • Philosophical zombies
    • Smart
      • The mind is the brain, so each mental state or process is literally one and the same thing as a state or process within the brain.
      • Numerical and qualitative identity
    • Leibniz
      • Physicalism is an incomplete account of what there is in the world, and we need to posit a nonphysical mind, a ‘simple substance’ to locate consciousness 
      •  Persuaded by the idea that the mind is a distinct substance from the body and that causal interaction between two substances is impossible


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