Science of food: why is food cooked and heat transfer methods

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  • Science of food.
    • Why is food cooked?
      • To improve texture
        • Cooking food usually makes it easier for us to chew, swallow and digest our food
      • To make it safe to eat
        • Many food sources contain harmful bacteria that can make you ill. Bacteria can be killed if food is cooked for long enough at a high temperature
      • To improve shelf-life
        • When foods are cooked at high temperatures, bacteria and mould are destroyed
      • To develop flavour
        • Chemical reactions take place during cooking that change the flavour
      • To give variety in the diet
        • Foods can be cooked in different ways to create variety in the diet
    • Heat transfer methods
      • Conduction
        • Conduction is the transfer of heat energy through the vibration of particles
          • When a pan is placed on a hob, heat energy from the hob causes particles in the pan to vibrate more and gain heat energy
        • When food is placed on the hot pan, heat energy is transferred from the particles in the pan to the particles in the food in a similar way until the food is cooked through
      • Convection
        • Convection is the transfer of heat energy through gases or liquids
        • When you heat up a liquid near the heat  source heat up faster. The warmer liquid rises above its colder surroundings.As the warm liquid rises, the colder liquid takes its place
        • Convection also occurs in ovens
      • Radiation
        • Radiation is the transfer of heat energy through waves of radiation
        • there is no direct contact between the heat sources and the food. The radiation waves are absorbed and heat up the food




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