Seven Years War - Buildup

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  • Prior Conflict
    • King William's  and Queen Anne's War
      • Treaty of Utrecht 1713
        • France recognised Britain's rights to control Hudson Bay territory, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia
        • France recognised Britain's rights to control over Iroquois native people (who were not consulted about the situation
      • in both wars - French + Native American allies carried out savage attacks on frontier areas of New York and New England
        • killed and tortured hundreds of colonists
        • Colonists received little help from Britain - thus dependant on their own militia + Native allies
        • forces successful and holding enemy at bay: 1710 = a New England Force managed to annex Nova Scotia
      • Albany Congress
        • only 500 British troops in America (following the peace of 1748) due to salutary neglect
        • Board of Trade recognised Native American support = essential in struggle against French
          • thus called on colonies north of Virginia to send delegates to discuss this
            • Albany Congress- June 1754
        • June 1754
        • Congress adopted scheme (drawn up by Ben Franklin) for inter-colonial federation
          • Franklins Plan of Union
            • envisaged an elected colonial parliament w/ authority over Native Americanaffairs
            • this parliament would also be able to levy taxes to support an army
            • was ignored by colonial assemblies
      • Fort Dunsque
        • Virginian planters received land fro British gov  in trans-Allegheny region
          • at the same time the French were building forts throughout this area - wanted to secure control throughout the area
            • Virginian force (led by Washington) went to prevent this but French already in possession of area - they were building Fort Dunsque at the time
              • fighting followed - Washington forced to surrender
                • led to Britain sending General Braddock and 2000 troops to America although on his way to Fort Dunsque he was killed in a French-Native American ambush
    • King George's War
      • Britain too absorbed in Europe to send help to Colonies
        • France/Spainsimilar problems
      • Royal Navy stronger than French + Spanish navies = difficult for Britain's enemies to send forces to America
      • Colonists outnumberedFrench
        • but intercolonial disputes + French alliances w/ Native Americans offset British advantage
      • New England heavily involved
        • bore much of the cost
        • their sailors were pressed into the Royal Navy
        • other men of military age did most if the fighting on land
        • Colonists' greatest military achievement = captured Louisburg 1745
          • outrage when Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748 handed Louisburg back to France


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