Socialism key thinkers

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  • Socialism
    • Marx and engels - revolutionary
      • HUMAN NATURE - we are fraternal and altruistic but we have been damaged by capitalism
      • SOCIETY - capitalist society is defined by classes and communist society will be the perfect end of history
        • equality of outcome
      • STATE - capitalism must be destroyed
        • inevitable that we will reach class consciousness and and eventually state will wither away until there is  communist society
      • ECONOMY - capitalsim  is corrupt, inefficient and self destructive  and should be repled with collective ownership
    • Rosa Luxembourg - revolutionary
      • HUMAN NATURE - not damaged to Marx's extent and fraternalism and altruism still flourish in working class communities
      • SOCIETY - capitalist society is class riddena and believes in equlity of outcome
      • STATE - state should be destroyed arisin from state action
        • replacement should be real democracy, free speech and elections
        • Capitalism is resilient and destruction will require a replacement economy based on workers control
      • she wants the processes to speed up to avoid the oppression that marx says is coming from capitalism
    • Beatrice webb - social democrat
      • HUMAN NATURE - revolution will not help human nature that has been tainted by capitalism
        • needs to be guided back gradually to its cooperative condition
      • SOCIETY - poverty and inequality of capitalist society continues to depress human potential and fosters regressive competition
        • reforms using existing democratic system like universal suffrage
      • STATE - expansion of state needs to plan and reinforce reforms of society  for enlightenment
      • ECONOMY - a chaotic capitalist eonomy will gradually be replaced by which is based on common ownership
        • we should use capitalism to be elected into the system to reform from within
      • equlity of outcome
    • Anthony Crosland  - social democracy
      • HUMAN NATURE - fairness and objection to inequalities of outcome  but less focused on collectivism
      • SOCIETY - not as binary as marx says so class divisions are as prominent
        • equality of opportunity
      • ECONOMY - mixed economy with increase in public spending
      • keep capitalism but reform it
    • Anthony Giddens - third way
      • HUMAN NATURE - shaped by socio economic conditions ad pro fairness now competes with individual aspirations also
      • SOCIETY - undergone embourgeoisement and egalitaarians must harness rather than deny these forces
        • Equality of opportunity
      • STATE - Roll back the state and invest in infrastructure and education
      • ECONOMY - free markets where state isn't involved in economy so competitiveness happens


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