Socialism pt 2

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  • Socialism
    • Economy
      • - Socialists focus on how the wealth which is created by the economy is shared. Revolutionary want to see wealth in common hands whilst evolutionary socialists are less hostile towards capitalism and believes it can be reformed and/or harnessed
      • -Social class is determined by the economic system underpinning society. Private ownership is problematic because the natural condition of mankind is to fraternity and cooperation which can be threatened by private property and capitalism which encourages competitiveness, egoism and pursuit of self-interests. Cpitalism also generates inequalities of outcome which is incompatible with equality of equality, self-determination and social justice
      • - Champion an economy that provides for greater workers' control in employment and a redistribution of wealth and resources 'the politics of robin hood' Tony Benn. An economy where there is low tax and little state interference will be one of unfairness and social injustice
      • - Demand greater collectivism because the economy needs to focus on the needs of society as a whole e.g progressive tax, progressive public spending, extensive public services, extensive state regulation of capitalism (min wage) and state ownership (clause iv)
      • - Economic collectivism can increase expressions of a more fraternal and cooperative society with greater social justice. It also makes the economy more efficient as capitalism is volatile and unpredictable
      • Workers control = Refers to the complete or partial ownership of an enterprise such as business or factory by those employed there. Can be providing workers with full democratic control over their place of work because workers are the key factor in production and should have full control of the means of production
        • -Revolutionary socialists believed that there would be a transitional period between the revolution and the stateless classless communist society where exploited workers would be in control. But it would be short because there would be no need for workers control as communism would b free from the exploitation of capitalism
        • - Social democrats and 3rd way viewed workers control as a militant class struggle as outdated notions of capitalism has been reformed of its most exploitative traits. Crosland was comfortable with a mixed economy. Giddens argued against the mixed economy because nationalised companies couldn't compete with the amount of wealth the free market creates
      • Marx and Engels - Capitalism is corrupt, inefficient and ultimately self-destructive. It should and will be replaced by an economy based on collective common ownership
      • Rosa Luxemburg - Capitalism is more resilient that Marx allowed. Its necessary destruction, and replacement by an economy based on workers' control will require determination and solidairty among the proletariat
      • Beatrice Webb - A chaotic capitalist economy will gradually be replaced by one which secures for workers the full fruits of their labour based on common ownership of the means of proudction
      • Anthony Crosland - A mixed economy underpinned by limited public ownership and Keynesian capitalism, will finance the greater public spending necessary to secure equality
      • Anthony Giddens - A neo-liberal economy propelled by privatisation and deregulation will provide huge tax yields and finance increases in public spending, securing equality of opportunity
    • State
      • - Revolutionary socialists see the state in a capitalist system as an instrument of oppression supporting the ruling class but in a post-revolutionary society the state will 'wither away'
      • - Evolutionary socialists (social democracy and the 3rd way) see the state in a capitalist system as having potential to intervene in all aspects of life to create a fair and equitable society
      • Marx and Engels - The existing liberal-bourgeois state is a tool of the dominant capitalist class so it must be destroyed in a revolution and replaced by a new socialist state; the dictatorship of the proletariat
      • Rosa Luxemburg - The existing capitalist state must be destroyed by a revolution, but one arising from strike action. The replacement of state should be a genuine democracy
      • Beatrice Webb - If harnessed to universal suffrage, the existing state could be used to effect a gradual transition to socialism
      • Anthony Crosland - Democratic socialist government (Labour 1945-51) prove that the existing state can be used to effect radical, socialist change
      • Anthony Giddens - The existing liberal state should be improved, redistributing and decentralising political power while encouraging greater political participation
      • - Socialists believe that without a strong state it would be impossible to bring a fairer and equal society. Need a sate to bring a redistribution of wealth and greater social justice
      • - Reject a monarchical, aristocratic and theocratic state but advocates one where political power as well as economic power has been redistributed and where decision making reflects the principle of equality and empowerment of 'the people'
      • - The state must be an extensive one because any reduction of state power will lead to social and economic inequality


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