Socialism pt 4

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  • Socialism - Social democracy
    • Definitions
      • Social democracy = Change needs to be achieved gradually without a revolution, capitalism can be reformed from within Parliament e.g through the nationalisation of industry in 1945 by Attlee. Believe the welfare system could help achieve a socialist society. Capitalism can be humanised in the interests of social justice
        • - Socialism faced hostility in the West as the Cold War unfolded and revisionist socialists had to deal with the reality that the postwar economic boom was increasing prosperity and living standards. Capitalism was delivering tangible benefits
      • Revisionist socialism = The belief that socialism can be achieved without the destruction of capitalism and private property, and without the upheaval of a revolution. A form of evolutionary socialism dating from the late 19th century associated with Edurard Bernstein, post-war social democracy and the Third Way of the late 20th century
    • Key ideas
      • During the late 19th century ad early 20th century social democracy was associated with hostility to capitalism and even a belief in a revolution. After 1945 within West Germany's Social Democratic Party (SPD) one of Western Europe's most influential socialist groupings, persuaded the party to renounce its remaining links with Marxism by embracing modern capitalism and the post-war West German state
      • - Crosland argued that the reformed capitalism prescribed by Keynes whereby the state actively sought to 'manage' market forces had guaranteed full employment and steady economic growth
      • - Crosland believed that thanks to keynesian economics, capitalism was no linger vulnerable to 'peaks and troughs' and could now be relied upon to finance a richer, fairer and classless society
      • - Keynesian economics allowed socialists to look at other methods whereby greater equality could be secured such as ending the 'unequal' forms of secondary education created by the 11-plus examinations.
      • Crosland argued that "Marx had little or nothing to offer the contemporary socialist"
      • Advocated: A mixed economy, state management facilitating the mixed economy, the welfare state to promote social justice
      • - Crosland believed that managed capitalism rather than laissez-faire economics could deliver social justice. Made sure the proceeds were more fairly distributed across society
      • - Social justice would be promoted through progressive taxation and by ensuring that the proceeds were fairly distributed across the welfare state. Crosland wanted to tackle the inequality of opportunity within education in particular. Broadly succeeded in creating comprehensive education which decreased cost division and provided greater equality of opportunity


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