Socialism pt 5

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  • Socialism - Thinkers
    • Revolutionary socialism: Marx and Engels (1919-83, 1820-95)
      • - Argued that human nature had been contaminated by capitalism which encouraged selfishness, ruthlessness and greed. Capitalism instilled in mankind a 'false consciousness' far removed from mankind's original nature. Task was to create a non-capitalist economic system which will revive the noble characteristics. Historic materialism, dialectic, class consciousness
      • - Explained the centrality of social class and argued that capitalism created two conflicted economic classes: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Class differences weren't harmonious and capitalist societies will be overthrown by 'historically inevitable' proletarian revolution
      • - Capitalism created a 'surplus value' where employers paid minimum wages so as to allow most profits to be used for refining the means of production. It will also nurture resentment and class consciousness among workers who would overthrow capitalism via revolution
      • - Challenged the liberal notion that the state was politically neutral but rather the state would always serve the interests of whichever class controlled the economy
      • - Asserted that in the wake of a revolution, an entirely new state would arise which would govern in the interests of the new, economically dominant class- dictatorship of the proletariat. Once the alternative state cemented its socialist values it will 'wither away'
      • - Social class is a central to socialism, human nature is socially determined and can only be expressed under communism
        • Wrote: 'The Communist Manifesto' and 'Das Capital'
    • Social Democracy: Beatrice Webb (1858-1943)
      • 1. Capitalism is the source of 'crippling poverty and demeaning inequality' and is a 'corrupting force' for humanity as it fosters avarice and selfishness
      • 2. Neither paternalism or philanthropy was a sustainable solution to poverty and inequality
      • 3. Poverty and inequality can be eliminated through trade unionism and extensive state intervention
      • 4. Effective reform tends to be gradual rather than revolutionary
      • - Along with her husband Sidney she became an active member of the Fabian Society which was involved in Clause IV. Her work anticipated the Beveridge Report of 1942
      • - The inevitability of gradualness where socialism will be achieved gradually through peaceful democracy using Parliament. The working class will vote for socialist parties. Workers control will be achieved through evolutionary means
      • Wrote: The Minority Report of the Poor Law Commission
    • Revolutionary socialism: Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919)
      • - Evolutionary socialism is not possible as capitalism is based on economic exploitation. Struggle by the proletariat creates the class consciousness needed to overthrow the capitalist state
      • Wrote: Social Reform and The Accumulation of Capital
      • - Like Lenin argued, a communist revolution could happen in less economically developed societies and rejected the need for a vanguard elite because a revolution would respond 'spontaneously' after class consciousness has been brought about through the proletariat's ongoing battle for progress in the workplace- mass strike action.
      • - Socialism must be internationalist in nature and rejected the Marxist-Leninist idea that a dictatorship of the proletariat is needed. Advocated for an immediate construction of a new democracy underpinned by nationalisation
    • Social Democracy: Anthony Crosland (1918-77)
      • 1. Managed capitalism can deliver social justice and justice 2. State managed capitalism- includes the mixed economy, full employment and universal social beneffits
      • Wrote: The Future of Socialism
      • - More egalitarian society depended on high levels of government spending on welfare services and the redistribution of income and wealth. Economic expansion would provide the government with funds for welfare
        • - Capitalism has been changed due to keynesian economic, Advanced societies could enjoy permanent economic growth and full employment. State could enjoy an expansion of the welfare state
      • - Member of the SPD (left wing German political party)
      • - Argued for a mixed economy and a new form of education known as comprehensive education to break down class divisions
    • Third Way: Anthony Giddens (1938-)
      • - A rejection of state intervention and embracing the free market which enriches society and the benefits ounter the negative effects on community
      • - Prioritise spending on infrastructure from tax and emphasis on active welfare rather than passive welfare
      • - Triangulation with neo-liberals view on economics and social democracy's view on a cohesive society
      • - Triangulation was important during 'post-Fordist' capitalist societies, Fordist capitalism which was based on mass production and individualisatiof labour
      • Wrote: The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy


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