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  • Created on: 15-07-19 13:55
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  • topic 5- religion in a global context
    • characteristics of fundamentalism
      • traditiional
      • back to basics
      • an authoritative sacred text
      • an us and them mentality
      • aggressive reaction
      • use of modern technology
      • patriarchy
      • prophecy
      • conspiracy theories
    • fundamentalism and modernity
      • davies- fundamentalism occurs where those who hold traditional orthodox beliefs + values are threatened by modernity + feels need to defend themselves against it.
      • giddens- fundamentalism product of a reaction + globalization, which undermines traditional social norms
    • cosmopolitanism
      • reflective thinking
      • open to new ideas
      • lifestyle is a choice
      • tolerant
      • use of rational arguements
      • personal meaning and self improvement
    • response to post-modernity
      • castells
        • resitance identity- defensive reaction of those who feel threatened + retreat into fundamentalist communities
        • project identity- response of those who are forward-looking + engage with social movements such as feminism + environmentalism.
      • criticisms
        • beckford
          • giddens lumps together, ignoring all important differences between them
    • monothesim and fundamentalism
      • bruce- fundamentalism in monotheistic religions whereas polytheistic- believes in many gods are unlikley to produce fundamentalism
    • two fundamentalisms
      • in the west- fundamentalism is often a reaction to change taking place within a society
      • in the third world- fundamentalism is usually a reaction to changes being thrust upon a society from outside
    • secular fundamentalism
      • the first phrase gave rise to religious fundamentalism- enlightment period
    • the clash of civilisation
      • huntington identifies 7 civilisations + most are larger than a single nation. each has a common cultural background + history and is closely identified with one of the worlds religions
      • criticisms
        • jackson- huntington is a western ideology that stereotypes eastern nations and people as untrustworthy, inferior or fantical
        • casanova- huntington ignores important religious divsions within the civilisations he identifies- eg between sunni + shia islam
        • horrie + chippindale sees clash of civilisations as a grossly misleading neo-conservative ideology that portrays whole of islam as an enemy. in reality only a tiny minority of the worlds 1.5 billion muslims are remotely interested in a holy war against the west
    • cultural defence
      • poland
        • From 1945-1989, Poland was under threat and communist rule by the Soviet Union. The Catholic Church was suppressed but for many Poles it continued to embody Polish identity. It lent its active support to the Solidarity Free Trade Union movement (1980s) that did much to bring about the fall of communism.
      • iran
        • Western capitalist powers and oil companies have influence in Iran including the overthrow of a democratic government in the 1950s to install a pro-Western regime headed by the Shah of Iran. During the 60/70s, his successor embarked on a policy of modernisation and Westernisation. This widened the gap between rich and poor while protest was ruthlessly suppressed. Change was imposed rapidly and from above, often causing suffering. Under these conditions, Islam became the focus for resistance to Shah’s regime. Led by clerics, the 1979 revolution brought about the creation of the Islamic Republic in which clerics held state power and could impose Islamic Sharia law on the country. But, Haynes argues the Iranian revolution was not the typical of politics in the Middle East in that it was led by the Mullahs (religious leaders). In other countries, the religious leadership was tied to the local elite who are tied to Western Imperialism. As such, local religious leaders are opposed by local Fundamentalists who regard them as enemies of Islam.
    • religion and development
      • god and globalization in India
        • Globalisation has brought rapid economic growth and has seen India become a more important player on the world political stage. Meera Nanda’s book ‘God and Globalisation’ examines the role of Hinduism (85% of population) in legitimating both the rise of a new Hindu ‘ultra-nationalism’ and the prosperity of the Indian middle class.
      • Hinduism and consumerism
        • Globalisation has created a prosperous scientifically educated, urban middle class in India (IT, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology)Secularisation theory predicts that these people will be the first to abandon religion. However, Nanda observes that the majority of this middle class continue to believe in the supernatural.
      • Hindu ultra-nationalism
        • Nanda – examines Hindu ultra-nationalism Survey - 93% of Indians agreed with the statement that ‘our people are not perfect, but our culture is superior to others’ Hindu values constantly promoted through the media and politicians – Hinduism is the essence of Indian culture and identity. Hinduism has become a civil religion (Bellah) By worshipping Hindu Gods they are worshipping the nation of India What is the disadvantage of this for the Nation?
    • capitalism in East Asia
      • east asian tiger economies such as south korea, singapore and taiwan, have industrailised + become major players in global economy. china is now a major global industrail power.
    • pentecostalism: global and local
      • Summarise the research by Peter Berger on similarities between the Protestant Ethic and Latin American Pentecostalism… How does Berger evaluate his research? 13. Pentecostalism: Global and Local… David Lehmann attributes the success of Pentecostalism as a global religion in part to its ability to incorporate local beliefs Through imagery and symbolism drawn for local cultures and existing religious beliefs. in this way Pentecostalism creates new religious forms As a result of this ability to adapt to local customs and establish a local identity for itself Pentecostalism has also been successful in developing countries because it appeals to the poor, also it uses global communications media to spread its message, along with road shows and world tours.
  • distinguish too sharply between cosmopolitianism + fundamentalism, ignoring hybrid movements
  • they are fixated on fundamentalism, ignoring other important developments- globalisation affecting catholicism
  • giddens description of fundamentalism as a defensive reaction to modernity ignores fact that reinventing tradition is also a modern, reflextive activity
  • second phase is giving rise to secular fundamentalism- science


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