Sociology 4.1

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  • Demography
    • Factors affecting birth rate
      • The proportion of women who are of childbearing age (15-44)
      • The total fertility rate
    • Reasons for a decline in birth rate
      • CPOW. More career focused, financially independent, contraception and abortion and easier access to divorce
      • Decline in infant mortaility rate
      • Children are seen as an economic burden. Cost of bringing up at child to 18 with two parents is £80,000
      • Child-centeredness. Family work to make sure all the child's needs are met.
    • Childbearing
      • Nearly half of all children born are born outside of marriage.
      • Women are having children later - 28 yrs old
      • Reasons  for changes in childbearing
        • Decline in stigma
        • Increase in cohabitation
        • CPOW - More career options
      • The Dependency ratio: A fall in the number of children reduces the burden of working population
      • Public services and policies - E.g. fewer schools and maternity wards may be needed.
    • Deaths
      • Decline in infectious diseases, improved nutrition, medical improvements, smoking and diet, public health measures and other social changes
      • Life expectancy has increased


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