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  • streaming
    • lower streams
      • it is hard for pupils to move up streams due to teachers low expectations of them
      • working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams
      • children placed in lower stream at age 8 had suffered a decline in IQ by age 11 (douglas)
    • separating children into different ability groups
    • each ability group taught separately
    • A-C economy
      • schools focus time and effort on certain pupils
      • pupils who are seen as having potential to get 5 grade C's
    • higher streams
      • children placed in a higher stream at age 8 had improved their IQ score by age 8
    • triage
      • sorting
      • those with potential who will be helped to get a grade C or above
      • hopeless cases who are doomed to fail
      • those who will pass anyway and are left to it


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