Structure and Bonding

  • Created by: Epic Al
  • Created on: 25-06-22 12:35
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  • Structure and Bonding
    • Atoms into Ions
      • elements react to form compounds by gaining, losing or sharing electrons
      • Ionic bonding
      • Covalent bonding
    • Ionic Bonding
      • held together by strong forces of attraction
      • Atoms either lose or gain electrons  on their outer shell
    • Giant Ionic Structures
      • High Melting and Boiling points
      • Will conduct electrons when molten or dissolved in water
    • Covalent Bonding
      • 2 Non-metal atoms
      • Each shared pair of electrons is a covalent bond
      • Most consist of simple molecules but some have giant covalent structures
    • Simple molecules
      • Low melting and boiling points
      • weak forces bonding the atoms
      • No overall charge
        • do not conduct electricity
    • Giant covalent structures
      • High Melting and Boiling Points
      • Carbon atoms in diamonds have a rigid structure
      • Graphite is made of layers making it easy to slide over each other
      • Can Conduct electricity and thermal energy because of delocalised electrons that can move around between the layers
    • Fullerenes and Graphene
      • Carbon forms cage like structures and tubes based on hexagonal rings
      • Useful for transporting drugs to parts of the body
      • Graphene is a single layer of graphite and is one atom thick
        • good electrical conductivity
    • Metallic bonding
      • Closely packed together and arranged in regular layers
      • Delocalised electrons can freely move around
    • Giant metallic structures
      • layers slide over each other
        • Can be bent and shaped
      • alloys are harder than pure metals
        • distorted by atoms of different sizes
      • delocalised electrons
        • good electrical and thermal conductor
    • Nanoparticles
      • Between 1 and 100 nanoparticles and size
      • High surface area to to volume ratio
      • means that smaller quantities of materials can be used such as catalysts
      • new developments could hugely impact modern day life
      • needs more research into possible environmental and health issues


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