sustainability of water

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  • Sustainability of water
    • Conservation of water
      • 1. Low volume appliances
        • Dual flushing
        • Water efficiency label
        • Pressure increasing shower heads
        • Water meters
        • drip irrigation
      • 2. Grey water- recycled water
      • 3. Reduce waste- leaky pipes
      • 4. Xeriscaping
    • Afforestation
      • Reduced groundwater due to root uptake.
        • Increased humidity
        • Increased precipitation
        • Decrease flooding, increase lag time.
        • Reduce surface runoff
        • Prevent soil erosion which prevents water bodies from filling with sediment.
    • Exploiting new sources
      • 1. directly from the river
        • Benefits
          • Convenient
          • Accessibility= high population densities by rivers
          • natural contaminants dilute downstream
        • Disadvantages
          • Contaminant may have a negative impact
          • Flow fluctuations
          • Discharges are only known on a annual scale- issue with planning.
      • 2. Exploiting rainwater
        • Benefit
          • Easy to maintain and access
          • Reduces water bills
          • Use for irrigation
          • Use as greywater
          • Important when public supply< demand
          • Popular in cities, particularly in India.
          • Decreased aquifer demand
          • Reduce rainwater accessing rivers, reduces urban flooding.
        • Disadvantage
          • Unpredictable
          • Regular maintenance
          • High initial costs
          • limited storage
      • 3. Estuary barrages
        • Freshwater reservoir behind the estuary barrage
        • Decreased land conflict compared to a normal reservoir as less land is flooded.
        • Disadvantage
          • Expensive + requires high maintenance
          • Stops shipping lanes
          • Accumulation of sediment and pollutants
          • Damage inter-tidal habitats

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