the concept of hazards

  • Created by: 12aatkin
  • Created on: 02-05-19 15:57
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  • Concepts of hazards
    • what is a hazard?
      • a threat with the potential to cause injury, loss of life, damage to economy, socio-economic disruption or environmental damage
      • Natural hazard
        • an event perceived to be a threat to people, the built environment and the natural environment. they occur in the physical environments of the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere
      • Characteristics of a hazard
        • clear origin
        • short warning time
        • scale and intensity require emergency respone
        • loss of life and damage occurs shortly after event
        • exposure to risk is involuntary
    • Disaster
      • a hazard event that causes widespread disruption, destruction of property and loss life on a significant scale
    • Risk
      • the probability of a hazard occurring and creating loss
      • there is increased risk if:
        • fewer open spaces so more buildings are likely to collapse and kill people
        • No warning systems
        • lack of education
        • tall unstable buildings
        • high population and building density
        • poor external services
        • poor drainage
    • why do people put themselves at risk
      • lack of alternatives
      • hazards are unpredictable to cant be scared all the time
      • changing level of risk
        • e.g. deforestation = increased flooding risk
      • cost/ benefits
    • factors that affect peoples perception of a hazard
      • experience/education
      • religious belifs
      • social status
      • age
    • Vulnerability
      • risk and ability to cope with loss
        • e.g. Haiti has high vulnerability because it has high risk and low ability to cope with loss as it is very economically and politically unstable
    • effects of hazards
      • Primary
        • the effects of a hazard event resulting directly from the event
      • secondary
        • effects that result from the primary impact of the event
    • how do people respond to natural hazards
      • fatalism
        • acceptance that hazards are natural and there is little to nothing we can do to prevent them
      • fear
        • the perception that people feel so vulnerable that they can no longer live in the area and move to safer places
      • adaptation
        • people see it possible to prepare for, prediction, prevention and/or protection, (depends on their economic and technological circumstances)
      • factors that affect peoples perception of a hazard
        • experience/education
        • religious belifs
        • social status
        • age


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