The periodic table

  • Created by: Epic Al
  • Created on: 23-06-22 17:05
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  • The Periodic Table
    • Development
      • Chemists tried to classify elements
      • elements with similar properties are in groups together
      • Named because of the regularly repeating patterns in the properties of elements
      • Mendeleevs table left gaps for other elements
        • when the elements were discovered his version was accepted by scientists
    • Electronic structures and the periodic table
      • atomic number determines placement
      • number of electrons in outer shell defines properties
      • group number tells us electrons in outer shell
      • atoms of metals generally lose electrons and non metals gain electrons
      • noble gases are unreactive as the have a full outer shell
    • Group 1
      • alkali metals
      • MPs and BPs decrease down the group
        • produce hydrogen and metal oxide
      • react with water
      • form positive ions in with a charge of +1 in ionic bonds
      • reactivity increases down the table
    • Group 7
      • Halogens
      • form ions with a single negative charge
      • can form covalent compounds
      • more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen
      • reactivity decreases down the group
    • transition elements
      • higher melting points and densities than alkali metals
      • less reactive than alkali metals
      • do not react vigorously with water
      • metals
      • important industrial catalysts
      • can form ions with different charges
    • Trends
      • electrostatic attraction depends on:
        • the distance between the nucleus and outer electrons
        • number of occupied inner shells
          • provide a shielding effect
        • nuclear charge
      • trends in reactivity is described by going down the groups
      • deciding how easy it is for atoms to lose or gain electrons:
        • Increased nuclear charge
        • extra protons in the nucleus
        • going down a group is outweighed by the other 2
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