the relationships between the media and audiences

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  • relationship between the media and audiences
    • passive audience
      • hyperdermic syringe
        • the media message is automatically taken on board
          • much like a syringe injecting the message into the audiences brains
        • assumes all audiences passively accept media and replicate it
      • two-step flow theory
        • media messages are filtered through opinion leaders
          • opinions leaders opinions are highly valued meaning the audience take on their opinions
      • cultural effect model
        • the audience is constantly bombarded with ruling class ideologies
          • eventually they are worn down and take on the media message
        • the new media allows people to be critical of media messages, creating social support
    • active audience
      • selective filter model
        • three levels to this filter
          • selective exposure
            • selective perception
          • selection retention
        • KLAPPER
      • uses & gratification
        • BLUMER & MCQUAIL
        • people get what they want from media, as it caters to different needs
          • E.G. young people watch soap operas to gain advice on relationship
      • reception theory
        • HALL
        • people interpret media differently
          • dominant - take on the view of the media
            • oppositional - the oppose the view presented
              • negotiated - they reinterpret the views to fit with own opinions
          • negotiated - they reinterpret the views to fit with own opinions


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