'To what extent is sustainable development difficult to achieve in the developing world?'

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  • 'To What Extent Is Sustainable Development Difficult to Achieve in The Developing World?'
    • Brundtland report (1987)
      • 'development which meets the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'
      • balance between social, economic and environmental development
      • relatively new concept
      • can be difficult to achieve all three requirements, especially with LEDCs
      • oxymoron- 2 words with contrasting meaning
    • Economic Development is a Priority
      • economic situation -in debt
        • need to develop economically to pay off debts
      • high poverty levels and little growth so govts want growth
        • economic growth to provide for BHNs
          • Eg. Uganda NDPII wants to exploit oil industry for growth - not envt sustainable
      • agrees that environmental degradation is a result of poverty so poverty reduction is prioirty
      • often environmental degradation bc of economic growth
        • Eg: Belo Monta Dam will cause 5,000km2 deforestation in next 20 years
      • often lack of participation of locals
        • Eg. Belo Monte Dam floods fishing area of indigenous people -don't speak Portuguese so don't know what's going on
      • cannot have sustainable development because of economic issues and social inequality
    • LEDCs Lack Resources for Sustainable Development
      • no funds for sustainable projects
        • idea is then to make the environment profitable (eg. MCA's, Bwindi Impenetrable National Park)
          • does not necessarily solve social issues (inequality) if external companies invest
      • hard to achieve all three spheres with economic growth (see prev. paragraph)
        • but also hard to acheive environmental/social development without money
          • shown in MDGs: designed to reduce poverty & countries worked hard but MDG7 v far behind
      • MDG7: the environment, water & sanitation and slum dwellers
        • not acheived in Bangladesh
        • But! in China! 470m lifted out of poverty, achieved targets for improving slum dwellers' lives and water & sanitation
          • not environment? but did reduce energy consumption 2005-2010
        • good bc focus on social and environmental development
        • not achieved because of benefits of exploitation, lack of will for change and lack of funding
      • not achieved because of benefits of exploitation, lack of will for change and lack of funding
      • Small-scale work of NGOs is very sustainable
        • Eg. Micro-hydro, Send a Cow
        • however! only works and has impact on a small scale
    • Role and Practices of MNCs
      • linked to economic growth and barriers preventing sustainable development
      • Eg. Nike in Vietnam, Coca-cola in India
      • found in developing countries bc of cheap labour and few restrictions
        • opposite to sustainable development practices
      • an issue when implementing SD policies (eg. clean rivers, decreased CO2 emissions, deforestation or fossil fuel use)
        • MNCs have power over governments: 130 countries have economies smaller than the top 50 TNCs
      • sustainable development cannot be achieved when MNCs have power to influence environmental decisions
      • an awful lot of responsibility lies with consumers to buy 'clean' products- these are more expensive
        • consumer market is where the money is: if people keep buying unsustainable products, MNCs will keep producing them
    • HOWEVER!
      • Sustainable development is a long, ongoing process
        • results are not seen immediately
        • Norway and Sweden (the most sustainable) not completely sustainable
          • underwent a process similar to developing countries now (KUZNETZ CURVE)
      • bc of Kuznetz curve, social development is needed before environmental development
        • can be achievable to the developing world and beginning to occur
      • using sustainability for development -eg ecotourism in Costa Rica
        • but! had social development first!
      • developing countries being forced to 'act sustainable' for developed ones (carbon exchange)
        • can keep people in poverty bc doesn't allow for development


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