Topic 8 - endocrine system

  • Created by: Charp3
  • Created on: 28-02-23 10:18
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  • Topic 8 -Endocrine System
    • 8.1.1 Location of major Endocrine organs
      • Hypothalamus
        • Releases Neurohormones - GHRH
      • Pituitary gland
        • Regulates growth - Growth hormone
      • Pineal gland
        • Sleep cycle - Melatonin
      • Thyroid gland
        • Regulation of weight and energy - triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
      • Adrenal gland
        • Fight or flight response - adrenaline
      • Pancreas
        • Regulate blood sugar levels - Insulin, Glucagon
      • Ovaries and testies
        • Sex hormones
    • 8.1.2 - Circulating and local hormones
      • Hormones secreted by endocrine glands
        • Regulate and coordinate bodily functions
      • Release in short bursts
        • Some over longer periods of time for permanent changes
      • Hormones affect specific target cells
        • Chemically binding to specific receptors
      • Circulating hormones travel in the blood
        • e.g. adrenaline and testoterone
      • Local hormones act on neighbouring cells
        • Do not enter the blood stream, inactivated quickly
          • e.g. Glucagon and serotonin
    • 8.1.3 How circulating hormones are regulated
      • Regulated by complex (negative) feedback loops
        • Signals from the nervous system, such as adrenaline
        • Chemical changes in the blood, such as insulin
        • Other hormones, such as growth hormone
    • Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland
      • Together responsible for homeostasis
        • Hypothalamus is the part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland
        • Pituitary gland is an endocrine gland
        • Neurohormones (GHRH) and somatostatin from the hypothalamus, influence the pituitary gland
        • Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus stimulate the pituitary gland
        • Pituitary gland secrets hormones such as ADH and GH, that help regulate bodily functions


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