Tudor Explorers - Life at Sea

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      • Captain: Worked out the route
      • Officers: Kept the crew at their jobs and sometimes had their own servants
      • Seaman: Heaved on ropes to move sails to catch wind. Steered the ship's rudder. One seaman moved the tiller (the handle of the rudder) to make the ship turn right or left.
      • Carpenters: Shaped planks to replace leaky ones. Made new masts if they were damaged.
      • Cooks: Prepared food for all the crew. Had to be careful not to set wooden ship on fire.
      • Cabin Boys: Helped withall the jobs and fed the animals being carried for food.
      • Ship's Doctor: Kept medicine in pots and gave injections with a syringe. He used a wooden mallet and knife to amputate limbs.
      • Master Gunner and crew: This was heavy work. Power monkeys carried gun powder to the gun crews. The master gunner was in charge of all guns, shot and gunpowder. He prepared and secured the guns and trained the gun crew.
      • Archers: Launched arrow attacks on the enemy.  Men had condition called os acromiale, that affected the shoulder blades.
      • Purser: Paid and mustered the crew. They kept accounts of stores, buying supplies and issuing food and drink on the ration list.
    • Scurvy: A disease that killed many sailors. Legs and gums swelled, covered with spots and were too tired to move. They did not know it was caused by not eating fresh fruit or vegetables.
    • FOOD
      • Dried food including peas, beans and lentils. Rice and flour and barrels of ship's biscuits. Magelllan took 15 tons of biscuits and 1500 pounds of honey
      • MEAT: They took live animals such as cows, pigs and hens. They took dried pork and salted meat.
      • Cheese, raisins, currants and almonds, garlic and onions, honey vinegar and olive oil. Salt and mustard
      • Drinks: Casks of water and wine
    • Mary Rose: Belonged to Henry VIII. Was a cutting edge ship built for war. Fought its first battle against French in 1512. It sinks on 19 July 1545 at the Battle of the Solent against the French. It was sunk by French guns. A cannonball low in the hull would enable water to flood in, making the ship unstable and leading to her sinking.


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