Unit 1C: Coastal Landscapes in the UK: Coastal Processes

  • Created by: GX007Z
  • Created on: 11-10-22 19:22
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  • Coastal Processes
    • Weathering
      • Mechanical
        • When a physical force causes the breakdown of rock
        • Examples
          • Freeze-thaw
      • Biological
        • When a living organism causes a rock to breakdown
        • Examples
          • Vegetation in a crack of a rock widens as it grows
          • Insects/ animals burrowing inside the rock
      • Chemical
        • Examples
          • weak acids react with the rock
          • Rain
        • When chemicals cause a rock to breakdown
      • Breakdown of rock in situ
    • Mass Movement
      • Large movement of sediment/ rock down a slope due to weathering and gravity.
      • Slumping
        • 1. Permeable geology is overlaying impermeable geology. 2. Precipitation has a significant impact on the cliff. 3. A slip plane has occurred. 4. Undercutting and erosion at the base of the cliff causes the sediment to collapse .
      • Rock Fall
        • What?
        • Why?
          • Weathering (freeze-thaw) + biological weakening cliff face.
          • Erosion (Hydraulic action + abrasion) wear away base of cliff due to movement + destructive waves. Due to instability of cliff face, gravity pulls cliff down
        • What impacts?
          • Infrastructure on top of cliff at risk.
          • Habitats damaged
          • Sediment transported by waves.
    • Waves
      • Constructive
        • Main Process: Deposition
        • -Low frequency
        • -Low/ long
        • Swash is more powerful than backwash
        • Material is deposited
      • Destructive
        • Main Process: Erosion
          • Erosion
            • Attrition
              • sediment collides with each other causing them to become smaller and more rounded.
            • Hydraulic action
              • The force of water pressurizes air in cracks in the rocks.
                • This force causes cracks to expand over time.
            • Abrasion
              • Rocks in waves are hurled at cliffs causing scraping effect and breakdown of rocks
        • -High frequency.
        • -Tall/ Steep
        • -Backwash is more powerful than swash
        • -Material is removed


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