AQA Unit 1- Key Words

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  • Unit 1
    • Memory
      • Encoding- information is changed or encoded so that it can be stored. This can be done visually (through images), acoustically (through sound) or semantically ( by meaning)
      • Storage- encoded information is stored in the memory so it can be accessed at a later date
      • Retrieval- accessing or 'retriving' the information from storage
      • Duration- how long information can stay with that memory (this can be anything from a few seconds, minutes up to a lifetime)
      • Capacity how much information can be stored wiht that memory (this can be anything rom a few items up to the capacity being limitless)
      • Sensory Memory- unencoded information received through out senses is held for just a few seconds in the sensory memory store before being passed on to the short-term memory for encoding.
      • Short-term memory (STM)-contains encoded information from the sensory memory. Its capcaity is between five and nine objects, and it duration is up to 30 seconds.
      • Longs- term memory (LTM)- the storehouse of all thing in the memory that are not currently being used. The duration is up to a lifetime and capacity is limitless
      • Amnesia-Memory loss to that is usually caused by physical injury to the brain; it can also be caused by a traumatic, emotional event.
    • Non-verbal Communication
      • Non-verbal communication (NVC)-the process of sending and receiving messages through gesture, body language, posture, facial expressions and eye contact.
      • Verbal communication- Speaking directly using sentences ect.
      • Paralinguistics - The vocal features that accompany speech, including tone of voice, emphasis and intonation.
      • Verbat- Communicatin that involves speech or is in written form
    • Development of Personality
      • Personality-relatively stable and enduring aspects of individuals that distinguish them from other people, making them unique, but which at the same time, allow people to be compared with each other.
      • Temperament_ Our inborn personality traits
      • Antisocial personality Disorder (APD)- A pervasive pattern of disregard for the violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adulthood and continues into adulthood
    • Stereotyping, prejudice & discrimination
      • Stereotyping- a shared belief about the characteristics of those who belong to a particular social or physical category
      • Self-esteem- how we think and feel about oursleves
      • Self-Image- how you see yourself and how you believe others see you.
      • Prejudice- an attitude, which is  usually negative, towards a particular group of people, ased in characteristics that are assumed to be common to all members of the group
      • Discrimination- treating people unfavourably on the basis of their membership of a particular group
      • Untitled
    • Research Methods & Ethics : part 1
      • Hypothesis- A precise and testable statement of what he researchers predict will be the outcome of the study.
      • Independent Variable- The variable that is manipulated (controlled) by the experimenter.
      • Dependent variable- The measured outcome.
      • Experimental Group- The group that experiences the independent variable.
      • Control Group- the group that does not experience the independent variable.
      • Order Effects- experiencing both the experimental and control conditions in a repeated-measures design ay affect participants' performance by either damaging it (because they have become bored or tied of repeating the task) or improving it (because they have already done a similar task: the practice effect.
      • Counterbalancing- reversing the order of the conditions for half of the participants.




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