US foreign policy 1890

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  • USA: Foreign Policy
    • Laissez-faire
      • Little government intervention e.g., little business regulations
        • Allows businesses to build and set up monopolies over industry
          • Monopolies would gain increasing amounts of power and influence in US politics
        • Linked to Social Darwinism
          • businesses better adapted to US economy would survive whereas smaller, weaker businesses would not
      • Linked to Isolationsim
      • A post civil war belief
    • Monroe Doctrine
      • A term by President James Monroe 1823
      • There are 4 main parts
        • US would not interfere in European  affairs
        • US recognised and would not interfere with existing colonies in the US
        • There would be no future colonisation of the Americas
        • If a European power tried to interfere in the Americas, the US would see it as an act of hostility towards the US
      • Could be seen as successful because of Mexico
        • Emperor Napoleon 3 of France tried to establish a monarchy led by Archduke Maximilian of Austria in Mexico.
          • The US was in the middle of a Civil War but protested immediately
            • When the war was over, the US stationed troops to the Mexican border and insisted on the removal of the French Army. The French left in 1867
              • Maximilian was overthrown in June 1867 and executed
    • Manifest Destiny
      • The belief that America had the right to expand across the continent. It was destiny
      • Helps fuel western settlement, the removal of Native Americans and war with Mexico
      • Term from John O’Sullivan in 1845
    • US in 1890
      • Turner releases his ‘Turner Thesis’
        • Says the Frontier is closed and America was now a nation.
      • Territorial consolidation has been achieved
      • Millions of new immigrants mobilised a new workforce
    • Conflicts with other nations
      • Britain
        • Dispute over US-Canada border
          • Agreements in 1842 and 1846 only covered eastern canada
            • 3 things made people worry about tensions with America
              • Red River Colony: Seemed the ideal place for settlement and development. Would mean that America’s control would go north into Canada
              • Fenian Raids: Between 1866 and 1871 there were 5 raids into Canada by the Fenian brotherhood. America was slow to take action.
              • The province of British Columbia: Stood in the way of US and Alaska.
                • many think it will join US voluntarily. But Canadian Confederacy promises to build railroad to connect it to the rest of Canada
        • Supported the Confederacy during the Civil war
    • The Indian wars
      • The Native Americans were seen as a barrier to the West
        • The west had become more appealing due to lucrative land and materials found e.g., the California gold rush in 1849
        • Depicted as culturally and racially inferior
      • Grant tries to end the conflict between white settlers and Native Americans by a policy of Assimilation
        • Most of those who dealt with the Native Americans were Christians (Quakers)
        • Could be seen as unsuccessful
          • In 1883 code of Indian offences described ‘evil practises’ that were made illegal including traditional Native American dances, feats and funeral practises
          • Still massacres on both sides
            • When America broke their treaty with the Lakota Sioux and penetrated the Black hills because of the 1875 Lakota Land Rush, they start war
              • General Custer and his men killed at Little Big-horn
                • Afterwards, the Cheyenne, Sioux, Nez Perce and Comanche tribes were heavily supressed
              • Wounded Knee 1890 marks the end of this conflict
                • The Great Sioux Reservation was broken up into 5 smaller reservations under the supervision of the BIA and the Lakota were moved to poor farming land
                  • Faced with starvation the Sioux turned to the Ghost Dance (a religious ceremony based in a prophecy of the end of white domination)
                    • December 28th on the banks of Wounded Knee creek, 153 Sioux were shot dead along with 25 US troops killed by friendly fire
                      • marks the end of the Sioux rebellion




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