Why did Saladin defeat the Crusaders in 1187?

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  • Why did Saladin defeat the Crusaders in 1187?
    • Saladin's political and military skill
      • Truces with the States
        • ended in 1186
          • Led to Hattin
      • Consolidated Islamic territory before attacking the Crusaders
        • Damascus
        • Mosul
        • Aleppo
        • Egypt
      • Married Nur ad-Din's widow
        • takes control of his family
          • prevents the sons from succeeding
      • Had control of Egypt
        • the most wealthy region in the Middle East
    • Muslim unity and strength
      • Saladin was able to unite the various Muslim cities and regions under his empire
      • unification increased his numbers for battle
        • Eg 20,000 at Hattin
      • now united under Jihad
    • Crusader Factionalism and Weak Leadership
      • Succession issues were the root of the leadership weaknesses
        • Died without an heir - Baldwin III
          • =  factionalism
        • Too sick/incapable to lead - Baldwin IV
          • needed a regent - Raymond III
        • too young - required a regent - Baldwin V
          • Raymond III of Tripoli
        • 1186 Sibylla was made Queen to Raymond's annoyance
      • many deaths of leaders in short time - unable to restore stability
      • There was factionalism and tension on who was to become regent
    • Lack of Manpower
      • Very few men were left to defend Jerusalem
      • At Hattin, Crusaders had a very small army
        • few Military Orders, and mostly consisted of able-bodied men who weren't skilled
    • Lack of Support from Byzantium and Western Europe
      • Death of Manuel I left a child heir
        • = opposition and factionalism
      • Saladin made alliances with the Byzantines to not attack (marriage alliance)
        • prevents Byzantine support from the Franks
        • Andronicus promised Saladin a free hand against the Franks in return for protection of the Turks
      • Conflict between English and French kings prevented them going to the east
        • Henry II planned to go to the Holy Lands but rebellion prevented him
      • Complete failure of the 2nd Crusade made European leaders unwilling to send their own men and resources to help
      • Byzantines are always more concerned with ensuring there is a buffer zone between them and the Turks


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