How were the Crusader States able to be established and maintained 1099-1040

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  • Why were the crusader states able to be established and sustained? 1100-1140
    • 1. Castles
      • Built for military and administrative purposes
      • Military function was to protect valleys and passes as well as dominating areas eg Krak des Chevaliers
      • Castles in the South were built for more offensive purposes - to put pressure cities such as Ascalon
      • Castles are hard to capture - crusaders knew this from personal experience
      • physical visual symbol of power
    • 2. Military Orders
      • Hospitallers 1099
        • Channel religious zeal of the church to minister to the poor and sick
        • 1136 they were entrusted with garrisoning castles and controlled fortresses
        • provided a very high standard of care
        • Admitted Christians, Jews and Muslims
      • Knights Templar 1119
        • Provided protection for pilgrims on the journey from the coast to Jerusalem
          • money --> more people   -->man power in emergency
        • recruited from Europe
        • skilled fighters, devoted to fight for God
        • incredibly effective military force - Muslims saw them as a threat and started to kill and ransom knights
        • custodians of castles
      • set up due to lack of men following the FC
    • 3. Trade
      • established trading routes East and through Syria into Asia
      • Ports on the West coast provided links to the Mediterranean
      • Sea Ports: Beirut, Tyre, Tripoli and Acre etc
      • trade from the West brought supplies and men
      • Pilgrims were brought over
      • Rural agriculture trade was also encouraged
    • Rulers
      • Baldwin I
        • captured coastal ports and repelled Fatimid attacks
        • Attracted settlers from the West and granted them land in turn for their  dependency
        • Baldwin II
          • Attracted settlers from the West and granted them land in turn for their  dependency
          • captured Tyre - a useful port
    • Muslim Division & relations
      • Muslims still hadn't been fully united under Zengi's idea of Jihad
      • Antioch was able to survive through good terms with Muslim neighbours
  • Although often at odds with one another, they were fundamental in providing strategies for battle
  • Trade allowed the States to gain wealth and Prosperity and is used to determine how successful Outremer became
  • Muslim division allowed for coexistence between the crusaders states and Muslim settlements which also led to trade which benefitted both groups
  • Strong rulers meant a strong state. Strong leadership will mean there is stability in the State


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