World Englishes

  • Created by: DanielV45
  • Created on: 17-10-22 19:55
View mindmap
  • World Englishes
    • Why is English a global language?
      • British Empire/ colonisation
      • American cultural + economic power
      • Technology = internet was primarily English language based at first
      • Around 2 billion people speak English in some capacity and 400 million are native speakers
    • English is spoken natively, or as second language or learned as a foreign language or used as a lingua franca
      • ELF - (English as a Lingua Franca) is used in Air Traffic control, the UN, the EU
      • Has a functional purpose as opposed to a social one.
      • Omits determiners, Avoids idioms
      • Nerrier found people preferred talking to non-native speakers in ELF, rather than native English speakers, as simpler, less abstract
      • Evidence against standard English being superior as ELF = not standard + preferred for world conversations
    • English spread through Diaspora
      • Level 1 - first/native language
      • Level 2 - second or unofficial language
      • Models of World English try to show the varieties
        • MacArthur's  circle (evaluate)
        • Kachru's three circle (evaluate)
        • Schneiders dynamic model
          • Says previous models reinforce the idea of superiority
            • Level 1 varieties often viewed as superior e.g., American English
            • Americanisms. E.G. Lexis - 'candy'. Spelling - 'organize'. -Grammar - 'Can I get a'
            • Started with Websters dictionary - Differences reflect American identity
    • Level 2 Varieties sometimes looked down upon
      • Singapore English Controversy. The Government initiated the 'Speak Good English' movement
        • Introduced to try to 'improve' speakers standard. (looked down on local English
        • The movement failed as speakers loved speaking Singlish as it showed IDENTITY
    • Future of Global English
      • Crystal says English will remain a global language as long as people continue to associate it with power.
      • BUT some say English has had its day, the current global wave of English may lose momentum
      • Technology/ Translation software will remove need for lingua franca
      • OR English will continue to spread but change into different varieties
      • Saraceni - we must cut umbilical cord between England + English - English does not belong to the English


No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language variation and discourses resources »