• Created by: Zak K
  • Created on: 12-01-23 21:39
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  • STM and LTM
    • STM - measured in second and minutes   disappear unless they are rehearsed
    • LTM - This lasts anywhere from 20 minutes to 100 years
    • capacity - how much can be held in memory
      • Joseph Jacobs - average span for digits was 9.3 items and 7.3 for letters. Jacob suggests it’s easier to recall digits because there are only nine digits whereas there are 26 letters.
      • The magic number 7 (+-) 2. the span of immediate memory is about seven items Miller found that people can recall five words as well as they can recall five letters. We chunk things together so we can remember them more.  
      • - Individual differences. The capacity of STM is not the same for everyone. 
    • coding - way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory 
      • The following words are acoustically similar but semantically different: cat, cab, can, cad, cap
        • The following words are semantically similar but acoustically different: great, large, big, hue, broad, long, tall
          •  STM is encoded acoustically whereas LTM is encoded semantically.
      • STM may not be exclusively semantic. In general, LTM is semantic but not always. It can vary according to circumstancesntitled
    • duration - how long a memory lasts
      • STM. given a constant syllable and a three-digit number (e.g., THX 512)
        • recall the constant syllable after  interval of 3-18 seconds
          • count backwards from there three-digit number.
            • 90% correct over 3 seconds, 20% correct after 9 seconds and only 2% correct after 18 seconds. 
              • This suggests at STM has a very short duration
      • LTM. tested 400 people of various ages (17-74)
        • A photo recognition test consisted of 50 photos
          • Participants who were tested within 15 years if graduation were about 90% accurate in identifying faces after 48 years, this declined to about 70% for photo recognition. Free recall was about 60% dropping to about 30% after 48 years.
      • - STM results may be due to displacement. Didn’t measure what it was set out to measure 


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