Animal Farm Revision

  • Created by: Holly1410
  • Created on: 02-05-16 12:22

Short Summary of the Book

Animal Farm

  • Old Major, aging boar, convinces animals of Manor Farm to rebel against farm’s owner, reclaim their rights, & establish their equality.

  • Old Major dies & succeeded by pigs Snowball & Napoleon, who rally animals & drive all humans off farm.

  • Pigs produce seven commandments to ensure equality on Animal Farm, but soon begin to award themselves special privileges.

  • After power struggle, Napoleon drives Snowball off farm. He relies on fear & propaganda to keep animals working on windmill project.

  • Life for all animals but pigs becomes brutal; the pigs kill dissenting animals, stand on two legs, drink alcohol, & move into Mr. Jones’s house.
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Key Quotes

“Four legs good, two legs bad.” - Chapter 3, pg 37

"Nine enormous dogs wearing brass-studded collars" - Chapter 5, pg 54

"All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others" - Chapter 10, pg 114

"All men are enemies. All animals are comrades" - Chapter 1, pg 9

"They were always cold, and usually hungry as well" - Chapter 7, pg 71

"The animals looked from pig to man, and from man to pig but already it was impossible to say which was which" - Chapter 10, pg 118

"Jones would come back" - Chapter 3, pg 39

"Jones will sell you to the knacker" - Chapter 1, pg 17

"Beasts of England, Beasts of Ireland" - Chapter 1, pg 19

"Four legs good, two legs better" - Chapter 10, pg 113

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Power Corrupts - allegory of Russian history, link between power & violence

  • Major's speech describes animals' suffering & presents vision of fairer society.
  • Napoleon uses sheep to silence Snowball.
  • Napoleon murders his opposition.

Equality - Division & hierarchy among animals, different levels of intelligence - some dependent on leaders

  • Major's speech describes inequality of animals' lives.
  • Pigs take milk & apples for themselves.
  • Animals told that there will be no more debates.

Dictatorship and rise to power - slow descent into tyranny, use of fear, manipulation & control

  • Napoleon's dogs drive Snowball from farm.
  • Snowball said to be visiting & sabotaging farm at night.
  • Napoleon carries whip in trotter.
  • History rewritten - rewrites Battle of Cowshed to glorify Napoleon's supposed bravery.
  • Dictators can harness mobs to drown out opposition - sheep. 
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Education and learning - Proverbial saying 'knowledge is power', pigs clever - take control

  • Animals learn to read.
  • Snowball has ideas for 'innovations & improvements' for farm.
  • Animals sing Beasts of England as 'substitute for words they can't find.
  • Seven slogans/commandments.

Language and power - manipulation, dishonesty, different versions of the truth

  • Squealer justifies theft of milk & apples.
  • Squealer defends Napoleon's decision to end debates.
  • Squealer explains pigs' work.

Propaganda - manipulation, control

  • Squealer reads out invented statistics that animals cannot understand.
  • Squealer refers to written evidence that animals cannot read.
  • Squealer explains that milk is good for pigs (also good for other animals).
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George Orwell

  • was a socialist

Karl Marx and Communism

  • Major's speech - Marx's theory
  • Marx believed capitalist society workers exploited by people they work for - animals & man
  • stated that workers would overthrow capitalists - animals overthrow Jones
  • Lenin adapted Marx's ideas to form his own brand of communism

Allegory of Russian History

  • Major's speech - what an ideal socialist govenment could look like
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Soviet Union

  • communist party (under Lenin) took power & killed Tsar's family.
  • after revolution, Trotsky & Lenin established communist society.
  • forces loyal to Tsar saw a threat to their own power & invaded Russia.  Lost.
  • after Lenin's death, Trotsky & Stalin struggled for power.  Trotsky forced to leave SU.
  • starvation & famine, helps eliminate opposition.
  • Stalin had complete control.  Propaganda to convince people only he could protect them.

Animal Farm

  • under Major, animals revolt against Jones & drive them away from farm.
  • pigs try to create Major's ideal society & change Manor Farm to Animal Farm.
  • Jones & men try to recapture farm in Battle of Cowshed.
  • Napoleon & Snowball disagree on every issue.  Snowball driven from farm.
  • animals suffering from hunger, pigs well fed.
  • Napoleon used terror & propaganda to become dictator.

Secret Police - nine dogs, show trails & executions.

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Key Traits of Totalitarianism

  • Ideology
  • State control of Individuals
  • Methods of Enforcement
  • Modern Technology
  • State Control of Society
  • Dictatorship & One-Party Rule
  • Dynamic Leader
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Maxim - saying/motto.

Allegory - story with hidden meaning, typically a moral/political one.

Fable - short story conveying a moral.

Propaganda - information, especially of biased/misleading nature, used to promote political cause/point of view, advertisment.

Dictatorship - government by a dictator (one leader).

Irony - full significance of character's words/actions clear to audience/reader but unknown to character.

Communism - theory/system of social organization where property is owned by community & each person contributes & receives according to ability & needs.

Socialism - political theory advocating state ownership of industry.

Fascism - political theory advocating authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy).

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Conflict - open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals).

Rhetoric - using language effectively to please or persuade.

Capitalism - economic system based on private ownership of capital.

Anthropomorphic - description of animals seen to behave as humans.

Imperative - verbs used to give orders/instructions.

Oxymoronic - phrase/group of words that contradict each other.

Pathos - moment that makes us feel pity/sorrow.

Register - style of language.

Satire - literature that targets an issue, institution/idea.

Symbolism - using object/person to represent something else.

Utopia - imagined perfect place/society.

Indoctrination - brainwashing someone into believing a particular opinion.

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Proletariat - lower/working class, only possession was value of their work.

Spin doctor - propagandist, who advises/offers favourable interpretations of policies/events.

Subversion (subversive) - act of attempting to destroy something, particularly government, often in secret.

Totalitarian - government with absolute control over its citizens' lives & does not allow them to raise any opposition.  Most dictatorships are totalitarian.

Tyrant (tyranny) - person who governs in an unjust & violent way.

Ideology - set of beliefs, ideas & principles held by particular social group.

Autocracy - system of government by 1 person with absolute power.

Situational irony - difference between what is expected to happen & what actually happens.

Dramatic irony - when audience more aware of what is happening than a character.

Double speak - confused & manipulated.  Believing in 2 contradictary things.  Serves to distort.

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Propaganda Techniques

Testimonial - respected person gives product stamp of approval hoping intended audience will follow their example.

Plain folks - convice audience spokesperson is someone that can be trusted & has their interests at heart.

Card stacking - only presenting information that is positive.  Omits important information.

Bandwagon - appeal to subject to follow crowd, others doing it.  Convince subject that one is on winning side as more people on it.

Lesser of two evils - presenting idea as less offensive option.  Convince people for need of sacrifices/justify difficult dicisions.  Adds blame on an enemy. 

Simplification - reduces complex situation to clear-cut choice involving good & evil.

Name calling - creates fear, creates unfavourable opinion/hatred against a group/belief/idea.

Glittering generalities - demands approval without thinking, simply because important concept involved.

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Propaganda Techniques

Glittering generalities - include words like honour, glory, love of country & freedom.

Transfer - employ symbols (waving flag) to stir emotions & win approval.

Repetition - drums message into head.  Eventually accept message without realising it.

Fear - fear something bad will happen unless do what is suggested to them.

Red herring - attempt to change subject/divert arguement to mislead audience.  Draws one's attention away from real subject.

Symbols - use of words, designs, place, ideas & music to symbolise ideas & concepts.

Faulty cause and effect - claim use of product, idea/policy creates positive result without any supporting evidence.

Compare and contrast - lead audience to believe that 1 product, idea/policy better than another without real proof.

Slogans - catchy slogans/phrases easily remembered in place of complicated/more accurate explanation.

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Extra Propaganda Techniques

Logos - arguement by logic.

Pathos - arguement by emotion.

Ethos - arguement by character.  Employs personality, repetition & ability to look trustworthy.

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