AQA Physical Geog plans

  • Created by: frazzybo
  • Created on: 01-03-22 20:27


11,000 ash plume; 1000 degree lava 150m in the air; ash contaminated local water supplies with fluoride from ash mixing with water affecting agriculture 

cost airlines £130m/day 

Kenya - 20% of economy based on export of green veg to Eu; 1m flower stalks were unsold; 50,000 farmers unemployed 

Icelandic and British Meteorological Office monitor volcano

EU - travelers stuck got legal compensation; insurance system allowed people to claim back losses

Tesco - circumvented the ash cloud by flying Kenyan produce into Spain and using road haulage 

people living in rural areas 'down wind' of the volcano wore goggles and facemasks 

500 farmers and their families were evacuated and roads were shut 

during main 8-day travel ban, around 107,000 flights were cancelled accounting for roughly 10m passengers 

1 of 15


19 killed in fires associated with pyroclastic flows

100+ injured

2/3 homes destroyed by ash or flattened by rocks 

7 villages destroyed 

population decreased from 12,000 to 1,500 by 2001

50% unemployment 

70% increase in rent 

expansion of exclusion zone and 5000 temporary camps are set up 

2 of 15


GDP/capita: $343.89; HDI: 0.456

3,5m people affected; 220k dead; 300k+ injured; 188k+ houses badly damaged; 1.5m homeless; 4000 schools damaged 

25% of civil servants in Port au Prince died and 600,000 people left Port au Prince 

confusion over government and air traffic congestion complicated relief efforts

Port au Prince's morgues were overwhelmed with many bodies being buried in mass graves 

delays in aid led to anger and looting 

EU: $330m 

World Bank: stopped debt payments for 5 years 

6 months after quake, 98% of rubble still remained 

1.6m in temporary camps w/o electricity and sewage disposal

charities raised $1.1bn for relief but only 2% of money was released 

1 year after...1m people remained displaced 

Dominican Republic offered support and accepted refugees 

USA tried to coordinate aid distribution 

3 of 15


9.1 magnitude earthquake

Pacific plate is subducted under the Eurasian plate

15,853 deaths; 6023 injured; 3282 missing; 300,000 buildings destroyed 

nuclear disaster and tsunami 

damage cost of $235bn 

warnings from JMSA helped to save lives 

Japanese gov sent in specifically trained people e.g. Self-Defence Force

Just 6 days after the quake a motorway was repaired 

better and improved warning and motoring systems were put into place 

4 of 15

Hurricane Katrina

30 oil platforms damaged; 9 refineries close; 7m US gallons of oil being leaked 

1.3m acres of forest lands were destroyed cost $5bn - included marine mammal and fish breeding grounds 

some insurance companies have stopped insuring homeowners in that area because of the high risk area

$150bn economic impact

fall of the levees - only build to withstand category 3 hurricane 

560km squared of land transformed to water by Katrina + Rita

by Jan 2006, half of the pre-storm population were once again living in New Orleans 

Louisiana population decline of 4.87% 

clean up of flood waters into Lake Pontchartrain - took 43 days; heavy metals; oil; bacteria; sweage; pesticides 

redistribution of 1m people e.g. Houston had an increase of 35k people

of the 60k stranded in New Orleans, the Coast Guard rescued more than 33,500

58,000 National Guard personnel activated

Congress authorized $62.3bn in aid 

FEMA: housing assistance to 700k; only 1/5 of housing requests were filled; by 2010 there were still 260 families living in FEMA-provided trailers 

law enforcement from NY and California 

government criticism: slow and lacked management; race and class were stipulated as issues with media focus being on the looting rather than the devastating effects; Kanye West claimed that George Bush 'hates black people' 

Lousiana Superdome: designed to handle 800 but 30k arrived 

Kuwait pledged $500m; whilst India sent tarps, blankets and hygiene kits

Indian Air Force IL-76 aircraft delivered 24 tonnes of relief supplies at the Little Rock Air Force Base

American Red Cross assisted 

Bush Administration sought $105bn in repairs and reconstruction but did not consider oil industry and the Gulf Coast's highway infrastructure 

4 weeks post-storm, evacuees had been registered in all 50 states 

5 of 15

Typhoon Haiyan - Philippines

7.5m storm surge killed at least 5800 people 

in rural Hermain, over 700m from sea, floods displaced bodies from graves

Tacloban City - 90% of buildings were destroyed 

5m homes destroyed; 6340 fatalities 

looting - made worse by 100/1300 policeman reporting for duty

charity trucks were attacked and stolen including 33k large bags of rice 

$8bn in damage - serious setback for development 

Businesses in Tacloban are still closed and many still live in temporary homes

Oxfam provided rice seeds

Save the Children helped to build tent schools to educate children

The DEC (Disasters Emergency Committee) launched fundraising appeal on Twitter which raised millions in weeks

by mid-Nov only 20% of those requiring aid received it

President declared martial law in some areas because of looting

UN fundraising: $788m and foreign nationals donated $500m

British and US forces were drafted 

mangrove soft engineering employed to reduce impacts of waves

government was working to improve warning systems and emergency plans 

6 of 15

Alberta wildfires

destroyed 2400 homes

costed insurance providers $3.7bn 

fire mobilised mercury and other heavy metals - toxic smoke

smoke travelled across US to the Gulf Coast - 3400km away

47m barrels of oil production worth $1.4bn was also lost 

lost Albertan economy $70m/day - rising global oil prices

Beacon Hill neighborhood was declared unsafe due to contamination from arsenic and heavy metals 

90,000 evacuated 

2400 homes burned down

fuelled political debate about impacts of climate change and future vulnerability 

government oversaw evacuation programmes and liaise with emergency services 

Alberta government had previously decreased funding for wildfire protection

careful monitoring of newly ignited fire using satellite data

Meteorological information was used to forecast the likely direction of the fires

90,000 residents were escorted to safety 

lack of direct deaths and injuries are down to well-organised evacuation procedure

Alberta government declared state of emergency triggering support from Canadian armed forces

Alberta government provided $1250/adult to cover living expenses 

Canadian Red Cross donations of more than $50m 

Justin Trudeau promised long-term aid to help the rebuilding of Fort McMurray

at the end of 2016, 'Fire Aid' benefit concert took place in Edmonton to raise money for those affected by the disaster 

7 of 15


Norwegian archipelago; 78 degrees N; 2700 people live there; main town is Longyearbyen

winter temps falls below -30 degrees; risks of frost bite; outdoor work is slow and difficult

remote area sp can only be reached by plane or ship; limited to Longyearbyen

one airport capable of handling flights from Norway and Russia

construction work is carried out in brief summer months 

permafrost provides solid foundations but has to be protected 

air pollution, overfishing and tourism are main issues 

coal industry: 300 people employed; vital to economy

fishing: Barents Sea has rich fishing grounds; 150 species of fish

tourism: in 2011 70k visitors to Longyearbyen; 30,000 of those were cruise ship passengers; adventure tourism is becoming popular; tourists mostly from Norway

increasing use of geothermal energy as it is located near Mid-Atlantic Ridge

main Longyearbyen mine to close in 2023 

carbon capture storage 

Disney documentary on climate change filmed in Svalbard 

harbor at Longyearbyen has been enlarged to cope with the increase in the number of cruise ships - tourism provides jobs for 300 locals

fishing in Barents Sea is jointly controlled and monitored by Norway and Russia to ensure that fishing is sustainable and the ecosystem is protected 

8 of 15

factors driving change in the Carbon cycle


- wildfires transfer carbon from biomass to atmosphere which decreased photosynthesis

- volcanic activity releases CO2

farming practices

- animals release CO2 and methane during respiration and expiration

- ploughing can release CO2 stored in soil

- growing rice in rice paddies released methane which exacerbates climate change

- deforestation reduces carbon sink to carbon source 

- 30% carbon rich peatland forest in Indonesia; when peatlands are exposed they are easily eroded and increase rates of decomposition of organic matter 

- exposing grasslands to extensive grazing will lead to high conc of dung which encourages grass growth 

- Walmart working with Brazil to source meat from land not deforested

- pressures in development and rising population

fossil fuel extraction 

- combustion of fossil fuels released CO2

- without human intervention, carbon would remain sequestered in the lithosphere 

9 of 15

interrelationships between water and carbon cycles

carbon needs water

- photosynthesis needs water

- water is produced from respiration

- acidic rain as atmospheric carbon store

water needing carbon

- healthy decomposed soil needed for infiltration and throughflow 

- carbonic acid affects ocean acidity

- greenhouse gases and periglacial environments 


- evaporation and condensation - e.g. In Amazon 50-80% of water remains in the water cycle

- driven by temperature and season

- drainage basin systems/ closed water systems 

10 of 15

human activity changes to carbon cycle

natural fluxes 

- temperature naturally fluctates 

- volcanic eruptions

deforestation/farming practices 

- disruption to soil and decomposition 

- emission of carbon

- tropical rainforests to grasslands for agriculture limits the rate of photosynthesis

- however, more pressure to stop this e.g. Walmart and Green Peace

- ploughing increases levels of CO2 as does animal grazing 

mineral extraction

- fossil fuels are combusted 

- positive feedback

- terrestrial carbon sequestered in rocks to atmospheric carbon 

- again, transition to cleaner energy resources 

11 of 15

importance of glacial and fluvioglacial processes

depositional processes 

- outwash plains; eskers; kames; kettle holes; drumlins; moraines 

- important as meltwater is produced which deposits material needed to be shaped by the glacier 

e.g. Conwy Bay is an outwash plain 

erosional processes 

- formation of meltwater channels; truncated spurs; roche mountonees; truncated spurs; aretes

- deposition is only formed because of erosion processes (e.g. plucking)

other factors 

- temperature and gravity e.g. basal sliding and internal deformation is a result of gravity 

- temperature changes produce meltwater which results in fluvioglacial processes

- seasonal changes 

12 of 15

impacts of warming on glacial environments

impacts on alpine glaciers 

- focuses on the ablation and retreating of glaciers 

-  Alps ski resorts finding that seasons are shorter and the amount of snow cover is reduced - however new opportunities in hiking and mountain biking

fluvioglacial impacts

- increase in meltwater, depositional landscapes 

- perhaps naturally cause due to friction

- more meltwater streams - increase in deposition and outwash plains 

- larger kames and eskers - greater water to ice ratio

periglacial impact

- focuses on amount and depth of permafrost 

- decrease in pingos, ice wedges, patterned ground

- increase in solifluction and soil erosion on slopes - terracettes and solifluction lobes 

- melting of permafrost positive feedback loop - methane released 

- challenges to infrastructure - instability in Svalbard, however agricultural opportunities in Russia and Canada 


13 of 15

relative importance of water and ice


- in relation to past distribution of cold environments 

- glacial budgets and historical patterns of advance and retreat

water and ice in geomorphological processes 

- frost action; nivation; internal deformation; basal sliding; deposition; transportation; extensional sliding

- permafrost, mass movement, solifluction, active layer 

geographical location determines the importance 

14 of 15

globalisation and hazards

international links 

- Christchurch in 2001 - $6-7bn international aid, rescue crews from UK and US

- technology and media spreads awareness - Philippines/Alberta

transport systems

- Eurostar in Eyjafjallajokull eruption

however can hinder domestic responses and rebuilding of the affected country

- political alliances, stages of development - Haiti vs Japan

- inequality caused - dependent on international aid - Haiti was a few years after the 2008 economic crash 

15 of 15


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Case studies resources »