Assessing needs


The APIE process

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A- assessment

People differ in many ways- Age, sex, physical form, ethnicity, religion, occupation, lifestyle etc.

Therefore, nursing assessment is about identifying which of these factors are important in relation to a particular patients health and care.

The purpose of nursing assessement if to find about your patients in relation to:

  • Their physical needs
  • Their psychological needs
  • Their spiritual needs
  • Their sociological needs

By doing so, a nurse would find:

  • Actual problems- problems and needs that the patient actually has at a time
  • Potential problems- Problems and needs that may arise as a result of the patients condition
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How to assess a patient

There are several models, frameworks and theories used to undestand the needs of the patient and how it can help in assessing a patient.

Such concepts are based on author's belief and their nursing philosophy

Therefore, a concept is required that helps nurses to follow a systematic way of assessing a need of the patient.

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Maslow's hierarchy of needs


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Qualitative date:

  • I am tall
  • I eat all the time
  • I have nocturia- (passing urine a lot at night) 

Quantitative date:

  • He is 6 feet 3 inches tall
  • He eats 8 meals a day
  • His urine output is 1500ml at night times
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Subjective vs objective

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Roper, Logan & Tierney's

Model of living

  • Maintaining a safe environment- assessing physiological data (observations), vision and hearing, mobility vs immobility, tissue viability assessment, falls assessment. 
  • Communication- Language spoke, Mental capacity, Hearling ability, Speech ability, Communication aids
  • Breathing- Clear airways, Observe breating rate, depth and effort, Pain related to breathing, Smoking history
  • Eating and drinking- Hydration, Nutrition, Swallowing and chewing, Patterns of eating and drinking, Dietary requirements, Religious requirements/ omissions, Weight and BMI, Allergies
  • Eliminating- Elimination habits, Continence, Colostomy or ileostomy
  • Personal cleansing and dressing- Hygiene needs, Assistance with dressing, Usual hygeine practice
  • Controlling body temperature- Take temperature, Ability to maintain temperature
  • Mobilizing- Normal gait- walking normal, Aids used for mobilization, Moving and handling assessment 
  • Working and playing- Employment, Hobbies and interests, sports
  • Expressing sexuality- Problems related to sexual functions
  • Sleeping- Normal sleeping pattern, medication, activities to promote sleep
  • Dying- Cultural and religious beliefs, Family/ friends, next of kin
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