anatomy and physiology

  • Created by: m.xfatima
  • Created on: 04-02-21 13:38


Plasma: pale yellow sticky liquid; 55% of blood volume.

Components: water 92%, dissolved protein 8%, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, minerals (mainly NaCl), urea, CO2, hormones, antibodies.

Four components of blood

  • ·        Plasma
  • ·        Red blood cells
  • ·        White blood cells
  • ·        Platelets

Blood has 3 important functions

·        The blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body, where it is needed for metabolism

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Cardiovascular malfunctions

Possible signs and symptoms cause and effects on the individual

Coronary heart disease is name given to several different conditions where there is heart or arterial disease which affects the blood flow to the heart and nutrients like oxygen getting to the heart.

Arteries are blood vessel that are comprised of thick elastic fibres and muscles which take away blood from the heart

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Hypertension: high blood pressure

Low blood pressure 70/90, normal 90-120/ 60-80 pre-high 120-140/ 80-90 (need lifestyle changes) hypertension 140/90 or above risks of CHD, stroke, heart attack, kidney damage, (lifestyle changes and medication)

Let people know of the possible signs, symptoms, causes and effects of hypertension

Signs of hypertension

One of the signs of hypertension would be blood spots on the eye however this is more common with people who have diabetes. However, floaters which look like blood spots are not related to hypertension. If there was a case of untreated high blood pressure, then an eye doctor may be able to detect this

 Another sign would be facial flushing, this is when blood vessels within the face dilate. This can occur unpredictably or response to a certain trigger such as heat exposure, emotional stress alcohol consumption and exercise which can all raise your blood pressure higher than usual

Severe Headache

Symptoms of hypertension

a person can display symptoms of hypertension. Some of the common symptoms include:

Nausea (A feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit)

Blurred vision.

Unfortunately, many people do not seek medical care until they are dealing with severe symptoms resulting from the organ damage that chronic hypertension can cause.

Causes of hypertension

Hereditary is a form of hypertension that is genetically rooted factor increasing the chance of getting it. If there is a family history of hypertension then it is best to get your blood check regularly to detect and early signs. Hereditary falls under the primary causes of hypertension because around 95% of all patients lead to having hypertension later in life.

Excessive body weight is among the leading causes of hypertension. Unhealthy lifestyle, increased insulin levels, poor diet cause obesity, which is linked to high blood pressure and other conditions like heart attack and diabetes. It is important to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent hypertension.
Age. The blood pressure increases naturally as you grow old. The risk of developing high blood pressure increases in elderly people. Consumption of fatty foods, excessive drinking and smoking and sedentary life, ups the risk of hypertension with age. (over 65)

Excessive salt. Excessive intake of salt also increases the blood pressure. If you are having processed or packed food, always check for the salt content as usually these products have high levels of salt. The excessive amount of salt will up the risk of cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure.

the gender is also important. Males have greater possibilities of developing hypertension as compared to females.

Sedentary lifestyle. Spending hours sitting is not healthy and it is often associated with high blood pressure. Long term sedentary life, which lacks exercise or any other type of physical activity, can lead to increase in body weight and stress on the heart.

Excessive alcohol and smoking. Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarette excessively will put undue stress on the arteries and your heart. It is important to find a balance and have a healthy lifestyle. Smoking excessively is connected to heart disease as this bad habit can clog the arteries.
Stress. From problems at home to office politics, there are several reasons for stressful life. It is another big contributor to hypertension. You must try to calm you mind and relax.

Contraceptive pills. Contraceptive pills or birth-control pills increases the risk of hypertension. If a woman consumes oral contraceptive pills, then it is important to monitor the blood pressure regularly.

Are of black African or black Caribbean descent

Cultural/genetic impact

Effects of hypertension

Dizziness can also be a sign of hypertension. However sudden dizziness should not be ignored. This type of dizziness, loss of balance or coordination and trouble walking are all warning signs of a stroke and hypertension is a leading risk factor for stroke

Circulatory system: Damage caused by high blood pressure starts small and builds over time.

Nervous system: High blood pressure may play a role in dementia and cognitive decline over time.

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Cardiovascular system

Function of the CVS

The cardiovascular system includes the heart and the blood vessels.  The heart pumps blood

Arteries carry blood filled with nutrients away from the heart to all parts of the body.

Capillaries join to form small veins, which flow into larger main veins, and these deliver deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

It flows along the pulmonary arteries to the lungs to collect oxygen, then back to the heart's left side to begin its journey around the body again.

Every organ in your body needs to be supplied continuously with blood to function properly.

Fresh blood brings oxygen and food to the tissues and carries away unwanted carbon dioxide and other waste products.

The blood circulates around your body through a closed system of blood vessels.

The heart is the pump, which pumps it around.

This total circulatory system is called the cardiovascular system. It contains about eight pints of blood, which your heart is continuously re-circulating.

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Blood supply to heart

The heart muscle needs oxygen-rich blood to survive.

Blood is supplied to the heart by its own vascular system, called coronary circulation.

The aorta branches off into two main coronary blood vessels.

The right coronary artery supplies blood mainly to the right side of the heart.

The left coronary artery supplies blood to the left side of the heart.

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strong, elastic vessels adapted for carrying oxygenated blood away from the heart

they are divided into progressively thinner tubes and eventually become fine branches called arterioles

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Blood leaving the capillary beds flows into a series of progressively larger vessels, called venules, which in turn unite to form veins.

Veins are responsible for returning deoxygenated blood to the heart after the blood and the body cells exchange gases, nutrients, and wastes.

Pressure in veins is low, so veins depend on nearby muscular contractions to move blood along. Veins have valves that prevent back-flow of blood

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Difference between veins and arteries

veins are low pressure vessels, arteries are high pressure

veins carry deoxygenated blood, arteries carry oxygenated blood

veins have valves, arteries do not

wall of a vein is two layers of tissue, arteries have three layers

veins carry blood back to the heart, arteries carry blood away

Arteries can be deeper and not superficial

Arteries have a pulse, veins do not

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