Criminology Unit 1.2: Campaigns for change

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  • Created on: 04-04-21 11:03

Sarah's Law

In 2000 Sarah Payne was abducted and murdered by Roy Whiting while she was playing outside. He had previously been jailed in 1995 for kidnapping and assaulting a 9 year old girl and he was on the Sex Offenders Register. Sarah’s parents said if they had know a sex offender lived in the area they wouldn’t have let Sarah play outside. They campaigned for a change in law so people could see if there were paedophiles living in their area.

In 2008 a pilot scheme was introduced in 4 areas of the UK to allow parents to make enquires about named individuals; police would then confidentially give details to the person most able to protect the child, if in the child’s best interests. The scheme was extended to include the whole of England and Wales in 2011. it is called the Child Sex Offender Disclosure Scheme.

People involved: Sarah Payne’s parents; The News of the World newspaper. This paper supported a campaign for change in the law, and published the names and pictures of 50 sex offenders. Unfortunately this produced a vigilante effect and the government refused to agree to the demands. Changed views: TNOFTW and Sarah’s parents continued their campaign and the gov. began to change its mind when another girl was kidnapped andsexually assaulted. An MP was sent to the USA to see how Megan’s Law worked there (accessing information on paedophiles)

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Ann Ming (Abolishing Double Jeopardy)

Double jeopardy is a law that prevents a second prosecution for the same offence after an acquittal or conviction. Ann Ming’s daughter, Julie Hogg, was murdered. Billy Dunlop was put on trial for her murder, but in 1991 a jury could not reach a verdict. Dunlop was then put on trial for a 2nd time, but again the jury failed to reach a verdict, so he got cleared of the crime. Dunlop later confessed to killing Julie, believing that he couldn’t be prosecuted due to double jeopardy. He was later convicted of perjury (lying in court) but couldn’t be done for the murder.

In the Criminal Justice Act 2003 double jeopardy was abolished for 30 serious offences, including murder. The law was retrospective and Dunlop became the first person convicted under the new law- he is serving life.

People involved: Ann Ming; newspapers, TV stations, radio stations, politicians.

Chaning views: Ann Ming used all the key parties above to try to get the double jeopardy law abolished through public support

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British Lung Foundation (BLF)

BLF aims to prevent lung disease by campaigning for positive change in the UK’s lung health. It raises awareness about lung disease, what causes it and how to prevent it.

Ban on smoking in cars that have children in in the Children and Families Act 2014.

Chaning views: BLF secured 50,000 signatures on a petition, which they presented to Downing Street. It also produced research about the effects of second-hand smoke by showing that 430,000 are exposed to second-hand smoke in cars each week.

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Bobby Turnball

Bobby Turnballs’ family were shot to death by a man named Michael Atherton on 1st January 2012. The campaign was put in place to increase the cost of firearm licences in bid to provide more money for more thorough background checks as Atherton had a history of violence.

The Prime Minister put a proposal forward for the gun licence cost to increase from £50 to £88. There was also the insurance that those prohibited from possessing a firearm are also banned from possessing an antique firearm.

People involved: Bobby Turnbull, also backed by a shadow home secretary, Yvette Cooper and the Gun Control Network. There was also support from former popstar Michelle Heaton who used social media to raise awareness of the campaign. There was also support from the newspaper The Sunday Sun.

Changing views: There was a change in peoples views’ as many people came forward and signed the petition and joined the campaign. There were calls for there to be more restriction on firearms and obtaining firearms.

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Claire's Law

The campaign was started in order to give people the right to know if their partner has a previous history of domestic abuse and domestic violence. This came after Clare Wood was murdered by her ex-boyfriend, George Appleton, after suffering from domestic abuse.

There was the legitimate introduction of ‘Clare's Law’ which gave people to authority and right to request information from the police regarding their partner and whether they have a past record of Domestic Violence.

People involved: Michael Brown, Clare's dad. Police forces also spoke out about it in support and encouragement for the campaign. There was also public support from women who have been through Domestic Abuse themselves and want to help avoid tragedies like Clare's.

Changing views: Initially there were nervous reactions from people who were too nervous to use Clare's Law in fear of finding out hidden truths however, it proved to be very helpful as it caused many disclosures to be found and helped women and men out.

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The Howard League of Penal Reform

A campaign for the improvement of the system of legal punishment. It campaigns for a society with less crime, safer communities and less people being imprisoned.

There was reformation to the Children Act 1989; Insisting that the act must apply to children who are also in custody, protecting children and ensuring they're still treated as children rather than adults.

People involved: Frances Cook (Chief executive), Margery Fry (Secretary), and works with police forces.

Changed views: There were changes in people's views as children were now protected in custody and still treated as children which people and parents appreciate. There is still the argument that if the Child has committed the crime they should be treated as an adult criminal however, in most cases there is the belief that children should still be protected and treated their age.

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Unlock Campaign

A campaign for the equality for reformed offenders. Established to help those who leave prison and want to do better and follow a positive path. Created by former offenders who want to help offenders leaving prisons with the difficulties they will face and to ensure they stay on a positive route.

People involved: Former prisoners; Mark Leech, Bob Turney and Stephen Fry. There is also public support through the use of individual donations andcharitable trusts.

Changing views:There is a positive outlook for those who are leaving prisons and want to go on a better way of life but there also might be some unease from the public over whether it is possible for former offenders to not reoffend or to be safe in public.

Reformation of the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974, due to the law becoming overwhelmed and outdated from sentence inflations.

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We won't wait campaign (Parkinson's disease)

A campaign that aims for the delivery of better treatments in years to come. They are campaigning for raising funds and awareness to continue forwards with research developments for Parkinsons and to help find more treatments that are needed for the hundreds of thousands of people who are living with the condition. It was started after the main drug used has been the same for over 5 decades and there are still no medications available to slow down or stop the conditions speed.

Mainly they have been raising money and awareness.

People involved: Donation charities such as Just giving. Kerrie Richie (Senior Development Officer) and there is also a large range of volunteers.

Changing Views: People are becoming more aware about the problem at hand and more willing to want to help as they can understand what the problem is. There is also sympathy as it is shown that there has not been much development.

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Me too movement

It was started after allegations towards Harvey Weinstein came to light about him sexually assaulting women. The campaign is to help stop sexual assault and to encourage more women to come forward about their experiences and to report the crimes. It came around widely in 2017 after trending online however, it was used back in 2006 in the same context.

Sexual Harassment and abuse are now taken more seriously. America especially has taken actions such as some states banningnondisclosure agreements regarding sexual harassment as well as introducing additional protection for more workers.

People involved: It was used in 2006 on myspace by a sexual harassment survivor and activist Tarana Burke. Actress Alyssa Milano helped to bring back its awareness in 2017 after there was an increase in sexual abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein.

Changing views: Due to how much publicity it received many people were quick to join the campaign and give it support, this also led to more sexual allegations being produced and more survivors coming forward to tell their stories. This also bought trouble for Hollywood industries such as the filming industry as directors and actors/actresses came under fire.

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Stop Hate UK

The campaign is dedicated to raising awareness and understanding of decriminalisation and hate crime. Attempting to encourage reporting, support those effected and recognise its’ effects. It was started in 1955 for victims of racial harassment, it was established in response to the murder of Stephan Lawrence.

They launched lots of different smaller campaigns in which they received fundraisers for. For example, The Stop Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Hate Crime line. Which provides advice, information and support over the phone for those experiencing hate crimes. A well as this there was also the Stop Learning Disability Hate Crime Line.

People involved: Their patron is Baroness Doreen Lawrence of Clarendon OBE, of Clarendon in the Commonwealth Realm of Jamaica. They also have ambassadors such as the Paralympian Adrian Derbyshire and Canon Mark Oakley, Dean of Chapel at St Johns College, Cambridge. There is also a big team of volunteers.

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Lillian's Law

The Campaign was started for Lillian Groves who was hit by a speeding car outside her home in Croydon on the 26th June 2010. She was killed by John Page who was carelessly driving after having smoked some cannabis. The Campaign/petition called for drug-driving offences and roadside testing devices.

It produced Lillians Law which made it illegal to drive with certain illegal and prescribed drugs above a certain limit. There was also the addition of Police having access to roadside detection kits to check whether a driver has taken drugs.

People involved; The Croydon Advertiser were the ones who initially launched the campaign namely the reporter, Gareth Davies, however, it was backed by her family and 20,000 people who were signing the petition.

Changing views: Due to Lillians young age of 14 this bought views from people to really make a change as her mother used a lot of phrases to indicate nobody would want this to be their child's fate. There was a lot of support for the movement.

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Anti-smoking Campaign (Stoptober)

Within the British Lung Foundation there is the campaign for ‘stoptober’ the 28-day campaign for the month of October to encourage people to stop smoking. It was introduced in 2012, it is an attempt at getting smokers to ‘mass quit’.

Every year for 28 days starting on the 1st of October ‘Stoptober’ takes place to encourage and help people to begin their journey on stopping smoking.

People involved: The British Lung Foundation and the NHS.

Changing views: It encourages people that if they participate in ‘stoptober’ that they are more likely to be able to quit smoking altogether. The challenge is also reaching out to people.

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Abortion Campaigns (Abortion Rights)

Abortion Rights is a pro-choice campaign established to help defend and extent women's rights and access to safe and legal abortions. The campaign fights to protect the 1967 Abortion Act. They were formed in 2003.

There is protection for the 1967 Abortion Act ensuring that it is not changed negatively for example, shortening of the Abortion time period.

People involved: They work closely with the parliamentary All Party Pro-choice and Sexual Health group as well as sexual health and education organisations. Alongside this they have the support of many organisations, trade unions and individuals.

Changing views: There are mixed opinions about Abortions however, there is obvious support from many unions and organisations that show that many people have support and positive opinions towards the campaign. This also stands for women who depend on this campaign to keep abortions available.

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Come Out for LGBT Campaign (Stonewall)

Stonewall (Come out for LGBT campaign) was founded in 1989 in retaliation to the 28 Section. Their aim is to support those of the LGBT community, to fight against discrimination and ensure that everyone feels safe and comfortable. They work hard to empower individuals, change and protect laws and to help change people's negative opinions.

The campaign assisted in the end of the 28 Section, which was their initial goal when they were founded, meaning they completed their initial mission however, they have continued the campaign to ensure that LGBT people are protected.

People involved: Nancy Kelley (Current Chief Executive Officer.) and a team of Trustees as well as individual donators.

Changing views: It allowed LGBT members of communities to feel more empowered and safer rather than having to hide away. There is a large amount of support from that outside of the LGBT community who believe in equal rights for all.

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April's Law (Restricting extreme online material)

5-Year-Old April Jones was kidnapped and murdered in 2012 by a man named Mark Bridger. Her parents started a campaign to stop indecent images of children being allowed on the internet. Alongside this they met up with a fellow parent and campaigner Sara Payne whose daughter Sarah Payne was murdered by a child predetor. They wanted to also push forward new limits of accessing restricted child content online.

There were ongoing petitions for Aprils Law to have child sex offenders remain on the register for life no matter the crime. But it mostly links in with Sarahs Law, which was a similar case.

People involved: Coral and Paul Jones (Aprils Parents), Sara Payne, and over 100,000 people who signed their signatures for the petition.

Changing views: People were quick to help the campaign due to people's disgust and need to protect children. They received a lot of sympathy and support.

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