Cultural Studies - UK and Australia


  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 05-05-11 09:35

Historical Determinants


  • Class system based on privilege - determined income lifestyle and sport
  • Influence of sport came from Public schools
  • Power of British empire had global impact - influenced the development of sport across the world
  • Divisions between amateur and professional players (amateur-higher class)


  • New culture
  • Privilege was not a feature of society
  • Didnt have a class structure (land of the fair go)
  • Sports from UK were adopted by Australia
  • Part of the empire - UK was the motherland
  • Victory against UK is significant (national progress)
  • Australian sporting traditions did not tolerate the class divisions
1 of 22

Geographical Determinants


  • Small country (helped communication and travel)
  • No areas of genuine wilderness- some ares of national parks not many mountains (restricts outdoor adventure)
  • One climate type (warm summers, mild winters) which restricts outdoor adventure)
  • Large population (62 million) high population density - helped commercialisation of sport
  • Distance wasnt a major problem (rail systems)


  • 32 x larger - harder for travel and communication
  • Areas of genuine wilderness (outdoor education) comprising coastal, land scrub, desert and mountains
  • Climate is diverse (favourable conditions for sport)
  • 22 million population (low population density) - urban country
  • distance was a problem to sports development - airports for internal travel
2 of 22

Government Policies


  • Monarch -head of state, Prime minister - head of government
  • Local government
  • Decentralisation is less evident in national cirriculum
  • Government not directly responsible for sport - however invovled through the DCMS
  • Capitalist but inclined to a mixed economy which restricts commercial enterprise
  • Professional sports are becoming increasingly commercialised


  • Monarch of England is cheif of state - part of british commonwealth (but was granted independance)
  • Decentralisation in each state
  • No national cirriculum (taken at a state level)
  • Sport is percieved as a government (vote catcher)
  • Adopted a capitalist economy
3 of 22

Commercialisation of Sport


  • UK invented many major sports
  • Public schools and traditions of Empire
  • Large spectator base
  • Railway system was efficient promoting spectators
  • Sporting venues easily accessible
  • Capitalist with elements of mixed economy
  • People have disposable income to spend on sport
  • can afford media outlets (sky)
  • Large amounts to build and maintain staduims


  • Long tradition of sport
  • Indicator of progress and national pride
  • Urban society
  • Densly populated cities - large spectator base
  • Transport systems are diverse
  • People have disposable income to spend on sport
  • same bottem points as UK
4 of 22

Social Determinants

  • Discrimination against minority is evident in UK and Australia
  • However more UK citizens denied access to sport (may be because Aussie population is smaller)
  • Both have Oppertunity, Provision, Esteem
  • Australia has three initiatives to improve access to sport: Indigenous sport programme (encouraging indigenous people to be more active) Disabiltiy sport prog, Women and Sport unit


  • Right to freedom (free speech and expression)
  • Teamwork is a traditional british value
  • Value of individual is important
  • Taking part is still important ethic however winning is increasing in importance
  • Fair play - overides win at all costs
  • Striving to overcome discrimination on class
5 of 22

Social Determinants cont


  • Everyone deemed as equal - sport never subject to social class divide
  • Bush culture reflects individual courage and enterprise and promoted teamwork - all people are equal
  • competitivness (currency and sterling)
  • Fair play - overrides win at all costs
  • Participation - rather then competitiveness
  • Social melting pot describes the situation in which people from different cultures have blended together to form an equal status
  • Apology has been given to the indigenous people
6 of 22

Physical education and victoria state


  • government has determined a national cirriculum
  • Physical education is compulsory - increase participation - improve a healthy active lifestyle
  • Due to obiesty levels rising


  • State government determine physical activity in schools
  • Compulsory - increase participation - healthy active lifestyle
  • Obiesity levels stable
7 of 22

Initiatives to Improve Physical Education

Government Policy -

  • UK (national cirriculum, physical education for young people, physical education and sport
  • Aussie (Sport education and Physical education programme)

Professional Development

  • UK (teacher training)
  • Aussie (Physical and sport education is a teacher training programme for those qualified)

Specialist Provision

  • UK (sport colleges increase sporting excellence)
  • Aussie (Exemplary schools share good practise with other schools

Primary schools

  • UK (National cirriculum, sporting playground initiave, TOPS prog)
  • Aussie ( Fundamental Skills programme)
8 of 22

Initiatives to Improve Physical Education cont

Student leadership

  • UK (step into sport, Junior sports leaderships, Community sports leaders)
  • Aussie ( Sport leader programme)

Awards for excellence

  • UK ( gifted and talented scheme)
  • Aussie (State blue award)

Sports Personality

  • UK (sports stars visit schools - role models)
  • Aussie (Sports person in school project links)

Teacher games

  • UK (fixtures between staff)
  • Bring teachers together for friendly comp
9 of 22

Outdoor Education


  • Climate less conductive to an outdoor lifestyle
  • Backpacking, hiking and walking are popular
  • No equivalent of bush culture
  • Climate and topography limit areas
  • UK lacks hostile wilderness
  • provides adventure experiences


  • Climate is favourable
  • Associated with balanced active healthy lifestyle
  • Bush, frontier culture can be experienced
  • Outstanding natural resources
  • Important area of education - examined subject
  • Victoria Youth development programme outdoor education programme that incorportates army, ambulance, fire service
10 of 22

Mass participation

  • In UK 72% of young people take part in physical activity - trend beginnning to decline
  • in Aussie approx 70% boys and girls complete 60 mins activity each day - on average 2-2 1/2 hours. (higher than the UK)
  • UK 30% young people in the 5-17 catagory were overweight

Australia Sports Commission -

  • promotes excellence and mass participation
  • More active Australia
  • Active membership of sports clubs
11 of 22

Strategies to promote sport participation in Aussi

  • Primary and High schools - Sport taught to the highest quality in primary and high schools. Co-ordinate national inter-school competition
  • School sport network - agency for teachers involved in sports - encouraging and preparing young children for an active lifestyle
  • Junior sport programmes - Modify games and provide resources, coaching, and competitions
  • Active after school community programmes - Primary school children to free, structured p.e programmes after school, aimed at non active children
  • Local sporting champions programme - Fincial support for equipment, uniforms, travel
  • Bluearth programme - Specialists in movement and health work alongside teachers to improve fitness and motor skills.
  • Aussie Sports - Modify rules, reduce the dimensions of playing environment and introduce child friendly equipment
12 of 22

Institutes of Sport excellence UK

There are 4 sport institutes

  • English institute of sport (EIS)
  • Scottish institute of sport (SIS)
  • Sports institute of nothern ireland (SINI)
  • Welsh institute of sport

Funding from national lottery and government

No hierarchy of importance (like aussie)

UK sport - controls institutes

functions same as Aussie

  • Produce elite performers
  • World class facilities
  • financial aid and sponsership
13 of 22

Institutes of Sport excellence AUSSIE

Atleast one institute in each state (eg......

  • Victoria institute of sport (VIS)
  • South australia institute of sport (SASI)

Funding from government and business sponsership

No hierachy of importance (like UK)

Monitored by national elite sports council

Functions (like UK)

  • Highest quality of coaching and technology support
  • Recieve treatment from sport medical services
  • Educational and vocational services provided
14 of 22

Pathways into professional Sport

  • Both countries Offer young people with talent altervative routes into elite sport
  • Both countries give vocational support to athletes and this reflectes positively on the contempory culture
  • (AUSSIE)Draft system of player recruitment in australian rules football is good for teams who finish low in the league tables because they get first selection
  • cricket players can bypass sports institutes and progress of professional league cricket
15 of 22

Alternative ways into professional Rugby league


  • does not directly use UK sport institutes to develop talent
  • Schools and clubs develop talent
  • proffesional clubs develop academies
  • Player can be fast tracked directly from school or club into pro


  • A promising young rugby player may will be a schlorship holder with the AIS
  • A talented performer could be nurtured through the club academy (AIS support is there)
  • The kids kangeroo scheme is a new national development plan, it tracks promising junoir players into the pro game
  • An under 18 comp has been promoted as a tv spetical and this exposure has fast tracked some players
16 of 22

Case Studies - CRICKET


  • Originated here (first recorded game in 1611)
  • Thrived in the UK public schools
  • Amateurs and pro players changed in different rooms
  • Captain of english team was amateur - reflecting class system
  • MCC driving force for international cricket
  • Defeat against australia significant
  • Marks the beginning of ashes - stimulating greater interest
  • in 21st centure twenty20 cricket was introduced to boost commercial


  • Direct copy of the English game
  • 1st games arranged between currency lads and english military
  • did not incorporate class privilege
  • Captain not required to be an amateur
  • Winning against UK is benchmark for progression
  • have named it twenty20 bash
17 of 22

Case Studies - Rugby League


  • in 1895 clubs broke away from amateur system (classed as rebels)
  • This changed the format of game to make it more entertaining
  • First match between UK and Aussie took place in UK 
  • Game with strong working class origins
  • Southern england never really accept it (northern associated) 
  • Commercial sport
  • Less popular compared to Rugby Union
  • Abolished relegation like USA 


  • Australia followed same lead as UK
  • Associated with specific areas (Queensland, New south wales)
  • Established in the East
  • Games between counties are a commercial success
  • Rugby league more popular (they don't have class system)
  • Australia has expanded rugby league to all states
18 of 22

Case Studies - Rugby Union


  • Rooted from public schools and universities (nowadays in grammer schools)
  • Middle class game
  • Organised on a friendly basis up to 1990's
  • Adopted professionalism after success of world cup 
  • League structure put into place - European cup to bring commercialization
  • Laws been modified to make game more attractive
  • Professionalism stopped Rugby union players signing up for Rugby League.


  • Played by private schools
  • Middle class amateur etho
  • Friendly basis
  • withstood commercial pressure in 1990's
  • become commercalised after success of world cup
  • adopted professionalism  - Super 12 competition  
  • Failed to successfully promote it, therefore not as popular
19 of 22

Case Studies - Association Football


  • Football association founded as amateur (origins of public schools)
  • FA accepted professionalism in 1888 (football league - dominated by working class)
  • Professional Football players earned a good wage
  • 1961 abolished maximum wage - now commercial business
  • Televised matches
  • Division one football clubs broke away from league and made premiership
  • Well ahead in popularity and commercial potential in UK 


  • Football was not popular until 20th century
  • Organisation identical sport directed from UK 
  • Proffesionalism hard to adopt (difficult to survive)
  • Game was marginalized
  • Soccer resulted in racial violence
  •  Was marginalized untill 21st century
20 of 22

Factors that Have led to rise in popularity of Aus

  • Government initiated an inquiry into management of football 
  • Governing body (Football federation of Australia) was established to promote it 
  • National league was established
  • Defused racial problems by enforcing withdrawal of ethnic team names
  • Spectator interest was increased (positive media interests)
  • Increased public and media interest (sponsership deals)
  • Victory against UK -sign of progression
  • National competition for women, supported by the AIS
  • 1 million players in Australia (fastest growing sport)
  • FFA is bidding to host the 2018 world cup
21 of 22

Australian Rules Football


  • Combination of Aboriginal ethic game and football that was played in 19th century (keep cricketers fit in the winter)


  • Accessible to ethnic groups
  • Aborigines well represented in the game 
  • Ethnic europeans were prominent


  • Appeals to all classes
  • Working class a chance to be respected
  • endorsed land of fair go


  • Victoria's womens football league promote female participation
  • Play dominated by men
22 of 22


Emily Summers


Really helpful notes (: xo



page 17 think you mean Australia not USA



Great notes, really helped me focus!! Thanks! x

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Practical sports analysis resources »