Development Dilemmas

  • Created by: Ett
  • Created on: 30-05-13 18:37


Development is measured by...

  • Birth + death rate, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
  • Types of employment - primary, secondary, tertiary + quaternary
  • Access to clean water
  • % of rural pop.
  • HDI, GDP

However, there are PROBLEMS when measuring development. It fails to show disparity (differences) in poverty within a country, benefits are not always fairly distributed, so some benefit more than others. 

The Brandt Line is a line on a map that separates the developed north from the developing south. The PROBLEMS of the line are that it is bias as it was created by a wealthy man, it only uses GDP, some countries in the South have now developed + it's outdated.

The North has low birth + death rates, high literacy levels, high GNP, large tertiary industry.

The South has low literacy levels, high birth rates, low GNP, large primary industry.

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Core and Rural periphery

Maharashtra - richest core region in India, has Mumbai. Economic wealth comes from...

  • Manufacturing - booming industries are steel, cement, computer software + textiles
  • Bollywood produces feature films, which are viewed worldwide
  • Services - banking, IT, insurance, hotels
  • IT graduates employed by large Western companies e.g. BT

Bihar - rural periphery has mainly rural pop. trapped in cycle of poverty...

  • Women - rarely own land, have few rights, are poorly paid landless labourers
  • Farming - most are subsistence farmers, rent land + when there is little work, they rent money. Low incomes + debt lead to malnutrition, + eventually death. Children are needed for farming, so many are uneducated + illiterate (low primary school attendance).
  • Cycle of poverty = subsistence farming -> little/ no surplus farm produce -> little/ no income -> no investment in machinery/ fertilisers

Differences between the core + the rural periphery are: Maharashtra has a higher literacy rate + lower IMR than Bihar. Bihar has a higher fertility rate (due to less access to contraception), Maharashtra has a larger urban population + a higher life expectancy (better health care).

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The multiplier effect + micro-hydro schemes

The Multiplier effect

  • Investment
  • Growth of industry
  • Needs workforce
  • People move there
  • More houses, water + services
  • Workers needed to provide these
  • More food needed
  • Shops open, more services needed
  • Demand for more workers
  • Growth continues, settlement + economy expand

As the multiplier effect becomes greater, a core region can develop.

Micro-hydro schemes have a generation capacity below 100kW. Water flowing through a pipe turns a turbine to produce electricity. They benefit rural peripheries . Advantages are that they help spread technology to rural areas, involves locals, it uses appropriate technology, has a low cost + most equipment is made in developing countries.

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Top-down development case study

Sardar Sarovar Dam across the Narmada River in India, KEY: social, environmental, economic

Features: The dam was created to store monsoon rains to use in the dry season, therefore providing water to the semi-desert north-west India + promoting economic development by providing electricity.

  • Doesn't involve locals + experts plan it
  • Big scheme run by govt. + uses machinery


  • Provides water for the driest areas + improves irrigation -> boosts economy
  • Provides HEP, jobs, water 
  • Provides areas for leisure activites, which increases tourism


  • Land has to be flooded - farmland submerged, religious sites flooded + evacuation
  • The electricity is expensive - only cities benefit. 
  • Weight of dam can trigger earthquakes
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Bottom-up development case study

Biogas (using cow dung) in India, KEY: social, environmental, economic

Features: Run by ASTRA

  • Appropriate technology
  • Involves locals + experts help locals
  • Low cost


  • Provides electricity for locals + cooking is faster
  • Less health problems (small amount of smoke)
  • Reduces fuel crisis due to less deforestation
  • Reduces dependency on firewood for fuel


  • Small-scale - benefits few
  • Requires maintenance 
  • Methane increases global warming
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Sustainable development case study

Tree planting in Gujurat in India, KEY: social, environmental, economic

Features: India's pop. is increasing, so less land suitable for farming is available. The National Tree Growers' Federation helps villagers to reclaim degraded land by planting trees. Key focus is the participation of women, landless farmers + landowners.

  • Uses natural resources + minimises energy use
  • Minimises waste + encourages re-use
  • Protects animals + plants
  • Affordable - doesn't put the country into debt
  • Minimises water use e.g. uses rainwater for irrigation
  • Benefits both the rich + the poor


  • Trees produce fuel wood to be used in industry e.g. bamboo craft
  • Meets needs for livestock, fodder + food
  • Cheaper fodder increases milk production -> boosts local economy
  • Provides jobs + reduces pollution
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  • Quality of life - how happy + content people are with their life
  • Standard of living - quality + quantity of goods + services
  • Gross National Product (GNP) - goods + services over a year ÷ population
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) - value of goods + services over a year in US$
  • Human Development Index (HDI) - score between 0 and 1 measuring the development of a country. It is based on education, life expectancy + income.
  • Core - where economic growth takes place (cities + ports)
  • Rural periphery - regions away from the core that play a small part in the country's economy 
  • Development - change (usually improvement) for people + the economy. It is a measure of how wealthy a country is
  • 'Growth poles' - points / places where industries + ports develop
  • Sustainable - meeting the needs of people now + in the future, limiting harm to the environment
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Mr A Gibson


This is one of two sets of cards I recommend you print out and combine to use as a resource on this topic. Add them together and you will be well up on this topic. Some great examples and some detailed case studies too.

Part 1 - access this here

Part 2 - this resource

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