Edexcel GCSE History, Unit 1, Section 4

Why did the cold war develop?

How did the relationship between the USA and Russia Change?

  • Created by: Nudrat
  • Created on: 23-11-11 22:31

How did the Cold War develop? (1943-1956)

What is a 'Cold War'?
It is where the countries involved go through all the motions of war, e.g. Propaganda, armsrace, spies, threats etc. BUT never actually declare it. It looks like a war, however NO BULLETS ARE EXCHANGED!

How did the Cold War Develop?
West Vs. East
Capitalism Vs. Communism - War of Idealogy
No trust
•Went through all the motions of a real war
Why wasn't there a real war?
•Both had nuclear weapons
•Both major powers
•Knew real war meant nuclear war
Nuclear war = Catastrophic
Therefore they never actually had a real war, but went through all the motions of war!

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Practice Exam Questions

(A) Question:

Give one reason why the Cold war developed instead of a real war.
(2 marks)

(B) Question:

What are the main key features as to why the Cold War developed?
(6 marks)

(C) Question:

Why was there a Cold War?
(12 marks)

(NOTE: I made these up - not real questions)

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The Grand Alliance- How did it break down? 1941-45

What was the Grand Alliance?

Alliance of three major powers
USA, Britain, USSR.

Aims: To defeat Nazis
Formed: 1941
Other Information: 'Marriage of Convenience', once Hitler defeated, alliance became very uneasy.

The Tehran Conference - 1943

Attended: The 'Big Three'; Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin.
Aims: To make plans for the reconstruction of EU. after war. (Victory guaranteed- fighting on two fronts.)
Advantages: Each country decided to have 'sphere of influence'.
USA + BR. Western EU.
Eastern EU.

Disadvantages: Germany- each wanted different things for it.
USA + BR. - rebuild so it can trade- money.
USSR- Crush it- no more war- no threat- punishment.

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The Grand Alliance- How did it break down? 1941-45

The Yalta Conference - 1945

Attended: The 'Big Three'; Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin.
Advantages: USSR to help USA defeat Japan,
Roosevelt and Churchill agree to let USSR have communist govt in Poland,
'The Declaration on Liberation in Europe' - all work for democracy in EU,
UN established- ensuring peace
Restated 'sphere of influence' agreement.
Disadvantages: West and East had different idealogies- Capitalism VS. Communism.


Stalin and Roosevelt had different ideas of democracy.
USA- different political parties competing in free elections
USSR- communist government

Success of the alliance mainly due to the relationship of Roosevelt and Stalin.
Roosevelt died within two months of Yalta.
Harry S. Truman replaced Roosevelt. -Arrogant, less willing to compromise.
Caused further tensions in Alliance.

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The Grand Alliance- How did it break down? 1941-45

The Potsdam Conference - 1945

Attended: The 'Big Three'; Truman, Churchill, Stalin.
Advantages: Banned the Nazi party and agreed to prosecute surviving Nazis as war criminals.
Reduced Germany by 1/4.
Agreed to split Germany into 4- Br, Fr, USA, USSR.
Disadvantages:Disagreement on what to do with Germany- Impose heavy reparations or rebuild it?
Agreed for the zone they owned they would take reparations.
Stalin - not happy - his bit far poorer than rest of Germany.
Therefore others agreed to give a quarter of industry from Western zones.
In return - Russia pay w/ E.Germany resources.

The Atomic Bomb
Truman bossed whole meeting because he felt he had the ultimate weaponA-Bomb meant he could destroy enemies without risking American lives.
Stalin kept his cool when Truman mentioned the A-bomb. However, he was more determined to make a buffer zone of cummunism In E.EU. - Was well aware of significance. Had already instructed Sov. scientists to make their own.
had made Poland Govt. only communist by Potsdam.
-Broken his word
-Insiders of meeting could see strain between USSR and USA. - thought it would lead to war.

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Practice Exam Questions

(A) Question:

Give one reason why the Grand Alliance was a 'Marriage of Convenience'.
(2 marks)

(B) Question:

What are the main key features of the Yalta Conference?
(6 marks)

(C) Question:

Why had relations between the 'Big Three' worsen by 1945?
(12 marks)

(NOTE: I made these up - not real questions)

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Why did the Cold War begin?

The War of Words - 1946
Churchill = Suspicious- felt Stalin ruling over everybody
Stalin = not happy - calls USA + Britain 'Hitler'
Results- Not allies- now opponents

The Secret Telegrams
Each country suspicious of other. Tell embassies to file report on opposing country.
The Long Telegram - to USA from Kennan, moscow - Report stated:
stalin wanted to destroy capitalism, there could be no peace w/ USSR whilst they were opposed to capitalism, USSR building up their military power.
Novikov's Telegram
Sent to Stalin. Report stated that:
USA wanted to dominate world, unlike roosevelt, Truman not willing to co-operate w/ USSR, USA public being prepared for war.
RESULTS: Both leaders thought war was inevitable, USA troops called Stalin 'Hitler'.

On the verge of Cold War
Both believed eachother was planning to dominate the world.
1947- Truman gave speech against communism - set out Truman Doctrine.

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Practice Exam Questions

(A) Question:

Give one factor that led to the breakdown of the Grand Alliance.
(2 marks)

(B) Question:

What are the main key features of the Secret Telegrams?
(6 marks)

(C) Question:

Why did Truman set out the Truman Doctrine?
(12 marks)

(NOTE: I made these up - not real questions)

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The Truman Doctrine - 1947

After Long Telegram, Truman got USA to assess USSR position. USSR in no positiion to win war- weak. Truman was still worried- Stalin could conquer EU. without war - Communism seemed appealing - Because EU. was in depression.

The Truman Doctrine stated that:
World - choice between communist tyranny and democratic freedom.
USA- responsibility to fight for liberality wherever communism was a threat.
USA- would send troops and economic help to those threatened.
Communism should not be allowed to grow and gain territory. THIS WAS CONTAINMENT!

The Marshall Plan - 1947
Hand in hand with containment- the dual strategy. Marshal plan offered $13bill. to EU. to rebuild their economy. This encouraged prosperity, Once Eu. economy got going, communism would be far less appealing. Condition of Marshal Aid = EU. had to trade with America. This meant that they could not be communist.

Reaction to Marshal Plan
1948 - conference about USA offer. EU. keen to receive Marshal Aid. However Stalin walked out - saw it as sowing the seeds of a military alliance - dollar imperialism. Stalin said Eastern EU. countries were to refuse offer. Wester EU. accepted offer gladly.

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Practice Exam Questions

(A) Question:

Give one reason as to why communism was so appealing to EU. countries.
(2 marks)

(B) Question:

What are the main key features of the Truman Doctrine?
(6 marks)

(C) Question:

Why did Marshal Aid and the Truman Doctrine go 'hand in hand'?
(12 marks)

(NOTE: I made these up - not real questions)

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Russia's Response: Satellite States and Cominform

Satellite States
A country that is officially independent, but is actually being controlled by another country. E.g. Russia controlled Eastern EU. countries from 1947-49.
Stalin set up satellite states to prevent countries accepting Marshal Aid, which he thought was a unofficial alliance w/ USA. Therefore he could control E.EU. countries to prevent this.

Cominform 1947
Response to Truman Doct.
International Org. - represented all Comm. parties across EU - brought them under direction of USSR.
Rejected Marshall Aid - told Communists to strike and demonstrate in Western EU.
France - 2Mill went on strike - to tell govt to reject Marshal Aid.
Also ensured loyalty of Eastern EU. countries. Investigated leaders and govt. Process was violent- ensured loyalty. THIS WAS CONSOLIDATION!

Comecon 1949
Response to Marshal Plan. Aimed to encourage economic development of Eastern Eu. Also prevented trade w/ USA.
Politically- minimise influence of USA in Eastern Eu. adn USSR
Economically- ensured benefits of economic recovery remained within Soviet 'Sphere of Influence'
Eatern Eu. did not have access to prosperity of Western Eu.

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First Confrontation

Two Camps
At Potsdam, clear there was a divide between USA and USSR.
Containment Vs. Consolidation made it a definite divide - made it formal military alliance with their 'sphere of influences'.

Always the problem. *should it be USA or USSR influenced or should it be neutral?
*Should it be Communist or Capitalist. *Should it receive Marshal Aid. *Should troops from USSR and USA be able to stay in Germ.

1947, Br./USA parts of Germany operating well together - Become known as 'Bizonia' - so operating as one. Fr. had good relations with Bizonia - joined to make Trizonia. BERLIN - split in four - although in Soviet part - Island of capitalism in Sea of Communism.

East and West Germany
1948 - Germany's future still being negotiated. However Western allies agreed to set up german assembly, constitution and new currency - the deutschmark. Stalin - not happy- signs of making a new country - opposed it because: didn't want USA to have further influence in Germ, *didn't want USA troops to stay in Germ. *Didn't want the resources of Western Germ to be used against him in war.

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First Confrontation: The Berlin Blockade, NATO and

The Berlin Blockade 1948-49
Stalin needed to show that split Germany wouldn't work. Therefore had to show split Berlin wouldn't work. Stalin Blocked Everything off in Berlin from Western Germany.
Truman responded with Berlin Airlift. Planes delivered supplies around the clock- 1000 tonnes a day. British did same.
Airlift prevented Blockade from succeeding. Truman seemed peaceful. Stalin seemed aggressive.
Berlin Blockade- propaganda success for USA. May 1948 - Stalin ended blockade- failed. Sept 1949- West Germany created. Oct. 49 - East Germany created

Formation of NATO - 1949
Result of B.B. *because of the risk of war. *Against Russia. *Military Alliance. *USA of Western EU. *Russia responded with Warsaw Pact 1955

The Arms Race
Race to have the best weapons, army, navy and air force. 1945 - USA Nuclear bomb. 1949- USSR caught up. Prompted USA to make stronger weapon - hydrogen bomb. 1953 Russia had one too. During 50/60s competed for best nuclear weapon.
SIGNIFICANCE: Prevented war in EU. USSR had 3mill troops in EU., but attack could mean USA retaliation- Bomb would be catastrophic - Stalin knew the damage- FEAR- Hiroshima/Nagasaki.

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Hungary under Soviet rule: Liberation and Oppressi

Hungary Under Stalin
Stalin claimed he'd liberated Hu. from Nazis

1949- Cominform- Opposite effect = OPPRESSIVE


-Hu. land distributed to E.EU. countries
-Hu.'s resources shipped to Russia - Hu. deprived of food

-Non-communist parties abolished

-Russ. officials controlled govt., police and army

-Cominform- violent- executing popular pol. leaders and their supporters

-Matyas Rakosi- appointed Hu.'s dictator.

Matyas Rakosi
Hu's dictator 49-56
Claimed himself Stalin's 'best pupil'
Hu.'s called him 'the bald butcher'

Used Salami tactics - 'slice by slice'- divided opposition
Under his regime - 387,000 imprisoned - 2,200 deaths ... ?

Stalin died - 1953
Turning point in cold war
Stalinism - extremely oppressive
New leader- Nikita Khrushchev- more liberal
delivered secret speech 1956
Promised to end Stalinism - throughout whole USSR sphere.

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Hungary under Soviet rule: Liberation and Oppressi

Nagy's Programme of Reform
Hu.'s started rioting after Secret Speech
Attacked Sov.'s w/ Petrol bombs and grenades
Demontrations- illegal in Hu.
Enormous demonstrations in Budapest- capital
Also in other major cities
Police- no control
Khrushchev appoints Imre Nagy - more liberal leader

Nagy's Proposed Reforms
Hu. leave Warsaw Pact - become neutral
Communism end in Hu.
Hu. become Western-style democ. w/ free elections
Hu. ask UN for protection against Russia

Khrushchev's response to Nagy
Khrushchev - Reforms unacceptable
Would end Alliance
Khrush. had access to secret intelligence - E.EU. countries unhappy w/ USSR rule
Allowing reforms meant end of Sov. rule in E.EU
Khrushchev - decisive force - Nov. 1956 200,000 USSR troops sent to HU.
2 weeks bitter fighting- 20,000 Hu.'s killed - 200,000 escaped to Austria
Khrush. defeated Nagy govt.

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Hungary under Soviet rule: Liberation and Oppressi

Nagy's trial + execution
Sought protection in Yugoslavian Embassy
Yug. Embassador and Khrush. agreed to let Nagy leave
As soon as he did, seized by Sov. troops
Accused of treason - found guilty in trial (governed by Khrush - unfair)
Hanged in 1958
Khrush: lesson to all leaders of socialist countries.

The International Reaction
USA encouraged uprisings in Hu. but did not offer military help
USA: a matter of highest priority to prevent breakout of war
As it would mean nuclear annihilation of Hu. and world
USA offered $20mill worth of food and medical help to Nagy govt.
Pres. Eisenhower praised bravery of Hu's - encouraged them to fight on
UN condemmed Sov. invasion - did nothing
Showed USA was not willing to provide military help
radicals in EU. discouraged countries from following Hu.'s example

Reasserting Soviet Control
Janos Kadar appointed new leader of Hu. - no real power - under Sov. control
But published 15 point programme
Points included: Reestablishing Comm. control in Hu. *Using Hu. troops to stop attacks on Sov.'s *remaining in Warsaw Pact *negotiating withdrawal of Sov. troops when crisis over
Hu. accepted as USA failed to support Nagy.

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A lot of the time you say EU, are you writing that as short for Europe, or the European Union?

Thanks :)

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