Prokaryotic cells


Prokaryotic cell properties

  • Very small (diameter between 0.5 and 5um)
  • DNA is not associated with any proteins and lies free in the cytoplasm
  • Cell wall is always present
  • Bacteria and cyanobacteria (photosynthetic bacteria) together make up the Prokaryotae kingdom
  • No membrane-bound cells
  • 'Prokaryotic cell' means 'before nucleus'
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Prokaryotic cell diagram


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Prokaryotic cell diagram labels

  • Plasmid=     small circle of DNA
  • Capsule=     slimy layer on surface for protection and to prevent dehydration
  • Pili=     thin, protein tubes allow bacteria to adhere to surfaces
  • Flagellum=     hollow, cylindrical thread-like structure rotates to move the cell
  • Ribosome=     made of RNA and protein, it is the site of protein synthesis
  • Circular DNA=      DNA that is free from a nucleus
  • Cell surface membrane=      phospholipid bilayer containing proteins forming a semi-     permeable barrier
  • Cell wall=      contains peptidoglycan, a type of polysaccharide and polypeptide combined
  • Cytoplasm=     the material within a living cell, excluding the nucleus
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