Haiti 2010 earthquake

background - one of the poorest in the world, 70% live on <$2 a day, 86% live in slum conditions, homes are buikt on soft soil with no building regulations, corrupt government, magnitude 7, epicentre 15km from the city, 13k deep, fault locked for 250 years, servere disasters in last 10 years 

Effects - 60% of Port au Prince destroyed, 230,00 dead, 6,900 deaths from cholera, 20% jobs gone, healthcare improved since, Haitian nurses work for NGOs in US, earning more, a year on and 810,000 still live in camps, 95% of children back in school 

Responses - Dominican Republic gave aid and opened borders and hospitals, survivors fled to rural areas, straining them, 1500 camps set up but poor sanitation with only 1 delivery of water a week, 1.6 million live in the camps, by July 98% of the rubble still remained, the world bank cancelled half of haitis debts and gave 5 years before any repayment started, cash for work schemes and community driven development, homes now have to comply with building regs, in 2011 the relief aid totalled $1 billion, in March 2010 a plan of action was sent to the UN where haiti realised its need for health workers, decentralisation and a disaster plan was made 

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Nyragongo 2002 volcanic eruption

nature - constructive, low silica, very fluid, over a hotspot, the 2002 eruption was from fissues from the 1.2km diameter crater which was drained by 3 stems of lava, stratovolcano near Lake Kivu, East African rift valley


social - 350,00 people were effected, 60km/h lava flows destroyed 14 villages, 80% of Goma was destroyed, 300,000 fled to Rwanda, 15% had no electricity, gangs forced them back to Goma, 147 died, 100 injured, 30,000 homeless, 12,500 homes destroyed, 100 looters were killed when a petrol station exploded 

economic - 2/4 hospitals, 3/11 healthcare centres in Goma were destroyed, 80/150 pharmacies were buried by 2 metres of lava, Goma looks over a lake a popular tourist destination but trade declined for 2-3 years

environmental - the shoreline subsided by 10 - 15cm, 10 km west of Goma Lake Kivu had gas bubbles dead fish


immediate - miscommunication via radio, measles vaccination given, refugee camps in rwanda, unicef gave food aid (3 day delay), 200,00 tonnes of food for 70,000 for 1 week from the un, 33 tonnes of water cleaning equipment from oxfam to rwanda

long term - lava cleared from main streets, water and electricity supplies rebuilt by charities e.g water aid, efforts made to reunite families, people encouraged to build own homes and churches and schools rebuilt 

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Eyjafjallaokull 2010 volcanic eruption

nature - in Iceland, constructive plate margin, 500m long fissure, ice covered strato volcano resulting in an ash plume of 11,000m 


social - people downward of the eruption had to wear goggles and masks, 500 farmers and their families evacuated, roads were shut, flight disruption to Northern and Western due to 8 day travel ban, 107,000 suspended flights, 48% of all air traffic, 10 million passengers impacted 

envionmental - ash contaminated water and mud, threat to livestock via fluoride ingestion, 30,000 tonnes of CO2 daily, scientists unsure if this will effect global levels 

economic - visibility down to a few metres preventing farmers, cost to airlines and associated businesses estimated by the IATA at £130 million, other modes of transport like hirecars made more money, 20% of Kenya's economy comes from exports of green veg and cut flowers, over 1 million unsold flowers in the first 2 days, 50,000 farmers temporarily unemployed


monitoring - monitored by the met office

immediate - 60+ red cross volunteers translated volcanic health hazard network, provided 2 meals a day in Heimaland, 700 people were evacuated from the hazard zone, 24 hour emergency hotline set up 

long term - rivers made deeper so flood defences were improved, monitoring and warning systems were also improved, texts are now sent to warn people within 30 minutes of an eruption

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Christchurch 2010 earthquake

background - destructive plate margin, Pacific plate under the Australian, suffers 1000s of earthquakes annually on seismograph but only 100-150 felt, between 1992 and 2007 > 30 were above 6.0 magnitude 

september 2010 - 7.1 magnitude struck Canterbury region, 40km from Christchurch, created a surface tear of 24km, land moved 4m in less than a second, no death but economic impacts and liquefaction was major environmental factor 

february 2011 - 6.3 magnitude, struck 5km from Christchurch, considered an aftershock 

impacts - intense ground shaking, 3 or 4 times more energy released and closer epicentre than first one, on the canterbury plains loose sediment on hard rock are a geological problem as well as liquefaction where the upper and lower layers of sediment separate and subsurface water is forced to the surface, 182 deaths occurred, 80% of water/sewage systems were destroyed, the National crisis management centre in wellington released a full action plan in 2 hours and the last person was rescued less than 24 hours after 

responses - CERA was set up for 5 years to oversee reconstruction, £8 billion repair costs, the interest rate was cut and the NZ $ was reduced, codes that followed a 1 in 500 year event were to be followed, 10,000 homes needed demolishing, 10,000 needed repairs, temporary housing set up on the racecourse and agricultural park, national hazards platform from 2009, GNS and NIWA research institutes all worked together with city planners to plan 

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Mt Etna 1991-93 volcanic eruptions

nature - Italy, destructive margin where the African and Eurasian plates collide, acidic magma but frequent eruptions mean it is has a low explosivity 


social - no deaths, 1000 people evacuated in Linguaglossa due to threat of lava, the authorities rehoused evacuees in holiday homes, 8,000 people in Zaffarena were effected by the broken water supply, in Val de Bove the homeless blamed the governement 

economic - in 2002 tourist stations Piano Provenzana and Rifugio Sapienza were shut as well as Catania (Sicily's 2nd city) had the airport closed for 4 days 

environmental - ash fell on Catania, even reaching Libya, magma was thrown 100m in the air, quick lava destroyed lemon groves, ski slopes and 100s of hectares of forests covering the slope


monitoring - Catania section of the INGV monitored Etna for last 20 years

immediate - warnings were effective, everyone was evacuated, operation volcano buster took place where explosives were detonated redirecting lava flow while lava tubing guided lava 7kn downslope, dams of rock and soil protected the tourist base of Rifugio Sapienza, £5.6 million pledged by Italian government to assist the loses in tourism and to give a tax break to villagers

long term - hazard zones were created, INGV in Sicily improved the monitoring since 1992 using GPS

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Nevado del Ruiz 1985 volcanic eruption

nature - Colombia, destructive plate margin where the Nazca is subducted under the South American plate, was a small eruption in comparison to usual but pyroclastic flows melted the glacier creating lahars which travelled at 60mph reaching Armero 2 hours after the eruption


social - lahars killed 3/4 of 28,700 population, 50 hospitals, 2 schools and 300 commercial buildings destroyed, 8,000 homeless, 5,000 injured and water supplies were contaminated

economic - cost estimated at 7.7 billion dollars, worth 20% of the GDP for 1985

environmental - land hit by the lahars was made fertile, 3,400 hectares of agricultural land was lost, lahars 30m deep and 50m wide buried 55% of the land in 2 hours 


immediate - 80,000 doses of tetanus and typhoid vaccines administered by health workers, Colombian military prvided helicopters to airlift casualties, red cross and civil defence were first to organize rescue and medical care

long term - hazard maps were distributed in towns, evacuation route markers were painted on buildings, red cross circulated flyers about volcanic hazards, public education campaign started in 1986, plan established for warning and evacuation for areas at risk in further eruptions 

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Tohoku 2011 tsunami

background - in Japan in March, magnitude 9.0 quake followed by a tsunami, high population density near the coast due to islands mountainous spine, 40% of the coast has sea walls of 10m, Japanese Meteorological Agency predicts, quake proof buildings and yearly training on September 1st after the 1923 Tokyo quake

effects - liquefaction in top 10m of soil, Fukishma had 3 nuclear meltdowns on East coast, everyone within 20km evacuated, waves reached 40m, travelling 10km in Miyako killing 35,000 people and leaving 200,000 homeless, cost was estimated at £200 billion and Toyota was shut for 2 months leaving other countries with a shortage of parts 

responses - predicted 3 minutes after the quake on live TV, texts sent giving people 20 minutes to prepare, emergency services were quick to respond, the early warning system saved lives, Sendai had a 10m high sea wall leading people to false sense of security, Japanese red cross recieved £1 billion, motorway was repaired after 6 days and all transport systems reopened and operating after 6 months 

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Indian Ocean 2004 tsunami

background - boxing day 2004, 9.1 magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami at a destructive margin where the indo-australian plate is subducted under the eurasian, 240km from Indonesia plate has been stuck for 200 million years, mega thrust earthquake lifted sea floor 20m millions of tonnes of water displaced, reached Indonesia 30 minutes after quake

effects - waves approach at 600mph, killing 250,000 peole in 14 different countries, 3/4 of population of Sumatra died (130,000) and 30,000 were missing, 500,000 were homeless after 80,000 homes were destroyed as well as everything for the first km inland, a total 1.7 million people were displaced, 8 people also died in South Africa 8,000km away, a train was delayed in Sri Lanka killing 1,000 people, cholera and dysentry killed 150,000 and Thailand lost much of its tourism 

responses - Hawaiian warning system knew within a minute which warned the pacific ocean but not the Indian, over $7 billion were given by governments and NGOs, £13 million from Action Aid, 5 million people relocated in refugee camps, a $20 million warning system was installed, the  food and agriculture organization of the UN trained 140 boat builders and gave 200 boats to kick start economic growth 

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Chile 2010 earthquake (anomaly to LEDC pattern)

background - had most severe earthquake in 1960, a magnitude 8.8 quake 21 miles deep hit Chile, 500,000 homes were damaged, hundreds dead and there were $15-30 billion of damages 

what was the anomaly? - the 2010 earthquake was offshore and deep, an environmental advantage, they had also learnt from the 1960s and so 1000s of low income homes had been made earthquake resistant, the president also gave minute to minute reprts hours after the quake in the middle of the night giving people advice and support

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