• Created by: Joanne121
  • Created on: 14-12-19 13:25

Tectonic hazards

Tectonic hazards- hazard events caused by tectonic plates colliding into each other, moving into each other, moving apart or subduction between a less dense plate and a more dense plate.

Hazards with tectonic plates:

  • Earthquake
  • Volcanoes
  • Tsunami's
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Multiple hazard zones

Multiple hazard zones- regions or parts of the world that are exposed to a range of hazards.

Two multiple hazard zones are; California (USA) and the Philippines.


  • Hazards- Earthquake (Loma Prieta 1989 San Francisco), floods and landslides.
  • Economic cost ($) from earthquake- 366 businesses destroyed, 3530 businesses damaged, $6 billion damage cost.
  • Social (human) cost from earthquake- 63 people died, 13 575 people injured, 1018 homes destroyed, 23 408 homes damaged, 25% of people suffered severe-to-moderate damage.


  • Hazards-Typhoon (Haiyan 2013) and volcanic eruption (Pinatubo 1990)
  • Economic ($) cost- Earthquake destroyed 800 buildings, Drought between 2000-2006 caused $450 000 damage and the Typhoons and tropical storms caused $41 250 000 damage.
  • Social (human cost)- Cholera, Earthquake caused 2006-15 deaths, 100 injured, flood made 1 374 248 people homeless, Landslide injured a 142 people.
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Storm surge- makes the level of the ocean higher, sort of like a tsunami.

Natural hazard- a natual phenomenon that might have a negative effect on humans or the environment.

Hydro-meteorological hazard- hazards that are caused by weather and climate events such as floods, droughts, hurricanes, tornadoes, landslides or mudslides.

Geophysical hazard- a potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon which can cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruptions or environmental degradation.

Geomorphological hazard- hazards that originate from the lithosphere, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and mass movements.

Humans cannot affect the intensity of earthquakes of Tsunami's, but they can (indirectly) influence tropical storms and storm surges.

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Natural hazards

Natural hazards:

  • Earthquakes
  • Tsunamis/hurricanes/tornadoes
  • Volcanic eruption
  • Drought
  • Flooding
  • Tornadoes
  • Wildfires
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Landslide- a collapse of a mass of earth or rock from a mountain or cliff.

An example of a landslide was in Llusco peru 2018;

  • Caused 100 houses, a school, a clinic and several fields and roads to be destroyed.
  • The landslide was caused by high water pressures, after heavy rainfall, between gaps in the soil rather than from seismic activity which was suspected at first. Weather helped the process.
  • It covered around 30 hectares of land.
  • There was a state of emergency for 60 days to help the evacuated and injured people.

Causes of landslides:

  • Intense rainfall
  • Deforestation
  • Earthquakes (seismic activity) or volcanic eruptions
  • Weathering
  • Vegetation change
  • Erosion
  • Intense rainfall
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Avalanches (snow slide)- a mass of snow, ice and rocks falling rapidly down a mountainside while burying everything that comes in it's path.

Example of an avalanche was on Tuesday, 9th of May, 2017 in the Vanoise National Park, located in the French Alps killing three hiking skiers.

It was caused by snow and rain together with the milder temperatures.

Causes of avalanches:

  • Earthquake
  • Deforestation
  • Higher temperatures
  • Wind direction- determines pattern of snow accumulation
  • Heavy snowfall
  • Winter sport activities
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Measuring tectonic hazards

Moment magnitude scale- measure of energy from an earthquake.

  • Logarithmic scale

Mercalli scale- measures intensity of an earthquake

  • Measures damage from 1-12, in Roman numerals.

Saffir-Simpson scale- tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones

5         >= 252 km/h

4         209-251 km/h

3         178-208 km/h

2         154-177 km/h

1         119-153 km/h

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Volcanic eruptions

Types of volcanic eruptions:

  • Fissure vent- a linear volcanic vent, through which lava erupts, usually without an explosive activity.
  • Shield volcano- a broad domed volcano with gently sloping sides, characteristic of the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava.
  • Strato volcano-a volcano built up of alternate layers of lava and ash.
  • Lava dome- a mound of viscous lava which has been extruted from a volcanic vent.
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Disaster risk equation

Disaster risk equation:

  • Risk (R)= )Hazard (H)* Vulnerability (V))/ Capacity to cope (C)

Capacity to cope:

  • Strong buildings
  • Evacuation

Factors affecting (V):

  • Rich/poor
  • Geographical location e.g. coastal
  • Latitude- risk of tropical storms.

Natural disasters often impact low density populated areas less than high density place because, the density states the amount of people on an square area of land.

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El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Niño- a climate cycle in the pacific ocean, where warm water, in the western tropical Pacific ocean, moves eastwards due to the prevailing winds, which is water that is poor in nutrients, aswell as leaving an area in drought due to the lack in rainfall.

Drought- a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to  a shortage of water.

El Niño caused major damage in the Philippines:

  • Water supplies are dyring up and farms suffer to have good yields to survive, leaving many jobless. Fishers can't keep fish alive.
  •  Food shortages are bringing people in danger of food poisoning, eating wild foods, such as wild yam.
  • Livestock are dying because they don't have forage against the heat.
  • The produce price is increasing, but farmers are paid less for their harvest.

In part of Manila, the government has started a rationing plan.

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Factors affecting the impact of hazards

Factors affecting the impact of hazards:

  • Infrastructure- the networks and services that keep a country running.
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Mega-disasters- disasters that affect more than one country with unusally large human and economic impacts.

Economic affects of the 2004 Asian tsunami:

  • Local economies, such as fishing and tourism, were devestated.
  • 66% of fishing fleet and industrial infrastructure in coastal areas have been destroyed.
  • A demand for fiberglass, caused the plastic catamaran business to boom.
  • Drinking water supplies and farm fields have been contamined.
  • Tourists cancelled vacations, boosting other countries with tourism.
  • Shipping in the Malacca Straits was disturbed, causing piracy to drop.
  • Higher losses of income earners, with decreased foreign exchange earnings.
  • Most of it's tourist infrastucture is damaged.

Economic cost Indonesia $5.5 billion

Economic cost Sri Lanka $2.2 billion

Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004

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Climate tipping points- Ice albedo

Climate tipping points:

  • Ice albedo feedback- a positive feedback climate process, where a change in the area of ice caps, glaciers and sea ice alters the albedo and the Earth's surface temperature. They work by having warmer temperatures, decreasing the albedo- proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reflected by the surface or the moon. 

An example of the Ice albedo feedback is the Greenland Ice Sheet. It has lost a significant amount of it's mass meaning, it got thinner and smaller in surface area. There was increased warmth air advection, along the western ice sheet, the solar energy increased power and reduced snowfall kept the low albedo.

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Climate tipping points- ocean carbon sinks

Climate tipping points:

  • Ocean carbon sink- a natural or artificial reservoir that absorbs and stores (carbon capture) the atmosphere's carbon with physical and biological mechanisms.

Plants or species absorb the carbon to photosynthesise and release oxygen. Phytoplankton are a species that photosynthesise using carbon and supplort the food chain.

Climate change may occur faster, as they cannot absorb as much carbon dioxide, since the sea's ability decreases because of global warming, and therefore the carbon dioxide stays in the atmosphere enhancing climate change.

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Climate tipping points- forest die-back

Climate tipping points:

  • Forest die-back- a condition in trees or woody plants in which peripheral (parts attached to tree) are killed by pathogens, parasites or weather conditions such as acid rain and drought.

A large number of trees or an entire forest suddenly dies often without an obvious cause. They cannot take in any carbon dioxide when dead and drop less leaves, making the soil less fertile, releasing more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and stops the absorbtion of the gas.

The Amazon rainforest is vulnerable through a combination of human influences, including deforestation, fire and climate change causing forest die-back.

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Hazard hot spots

Hazard hotspots- vulnerable places at risk of two or more hazards.


Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption 1991 

  • Biggest eruption to over 50 years.
  • 10-km exclusion zone set up, extended to 30.
  • 200 000 people evacuated.
  • Cloud of 20 km into the atmosphere
  • Monitoring and management reduced Pinatubo's death and injury toll to just over 4300 people.

2016 earthquake:

  • Killed 15 people, 100 injured and 800 buildings damaged or destroyed.
  • Caused local tsunami 3 metres high
  • Triggered landslide, creating a flood.
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Hazard hotspot- Philippines

Guinsaugon landslide

  • Village in Central Philippines
  • Covering 3 km^2
  • Killed 1150 people
  • 2003, 200 people killed by landslide
  • Primary school destroyed, 200 students died.
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Hazard hotspots- California

1906 San Francisco earthquake

  • 8.2 on Richter scale
  • Fractured gas pipes and water mains.

1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

  • 17 October 1989
  • 7.1 on Richter scale
  • 5.2 on Magnitude afterschock
  • 63 people died, 13 757 injured
  • 1018 homes destroyed, 3530 businesses damaged
  • Damage US $6 billion
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More hazard hotspots- California

1994 Northride earthquake

  • 6.7 magnitude in Northern los Angeles
  • 57 people died, over 1500 seriously injured.
  • 12 500 buildings damaged, 25 % suffered severe-to-moderate damage.
  • 9000 homes and businesses without electricity (20 000) without gas), 48 500 people without water.
  • Traffic jam for 30 km.

Effects of El Niño on California:

  • Drought
  • Forest fires
  • Floods
  • Landslides
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Facts Philippines and California


  • GNI $3,830
  • Literacy rate 90%
  • Employment 94.6%
  • Internet access 61%


  • GDP $76.000
  • Literacy rate 100%
  • Employment 95.9%
  • Internet access 97%
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Going global- vocabulary

Globalisation- the world feeling like a smaller place.

Migration- people moving from one place to another.

Urbanisation- Increasing proportion of people living in towns and cities.

Containerisation- growth of container ships.

TNCs- Trans National Corporation (companies that operate in more than one country).

Protectionism- the practice of shielding a country's domestic industries from foreign competition by taxing imports.

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History of globalisation

The Roman civilization:

  • Period: 550 BC- 465 AD
  • Original location: Village of the Latini
  • Current location: Rome
  • They were seen in Europe, Asia and part of Africa.

The Persian Civilization:

  • Period: 550 BC- 331 BC
  • Original location: Egypt, in the west to Turkey in the North, and through Mesopotami to the Indus river in the east.
  • Current location: Modern-day Iran.
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More history of globalisation

British East India Company

  • Set up on 22 September 1599
  • They traded from 1600 to 1874
  • Traded with Mughal India, East Indies and Qing China.
  • They were made in control of the colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hongkong.

Dutch East India Company

  • Established on March 20, 1602
  • 1602-1799
  • Handled in Eurasia, Greater India
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Free trade agreements

Free trade agreement- a treaty between two or more countries to facilitate trade and eliminate trade barriers.

Examples of Free trade Agreements:

  • EFTA: European Free Trade Association; Norway, Iceland, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.

It was established to improve work efficiency and sustainability.

  • NAFTA: United states, Mexico and canada.

To eliminate barriers to trade an investment between the US, Canada and Mexico.

  • SAFTA: South Asian Free Trade Area; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

It's purpose is to encourage and elevate common contract among the countries.

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Measuring globalisation- A.T. Kearney

Measuring gobalisation:

A.T. Kearney Index

  • Compares 64 countries on three things; FDI (foreign direct investment)-companies investing in different countries, internet and telephone traffic (international).


  • It covers 96% of the world's GDP.
  • It covers 84% of the world's population.


  • Only 64 countries out of 195 included (not very global).
  • Smaller nations can appear high on the index because, they rely on service industries (this is inflated).
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Measuring globalisation- KOF index

KOF index:

  • Measures globalisation between 122  countries on social, economic and political factors.
  • Works on a scale between 0-100 (0= not globalised, 100= totally globalised).


  • Compares more than just economic (for example, how easy it is for people to move to places, and relationships between nations).
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Special economic zones

Special economic zones- an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.

E.g. Infopark, Kochi- Kerala, India (richest state India, touristy).

Businesses that have moved in (IT services);

  • KPMG- Multinational professional services Network

Headquarters Switzerland and Netherlands.

  • Ernst and Young

Headquarters in London.

Economic impact:

  • Export revenues RS. 1.534 Orore 2012-2013, 200.000,000 euro.

TNC- Trans National Cooperation

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21st Century development

Mobile phones have led to the shrinking world by allowing people in different parts of the world to contact each other and be reachable immediately.

The internet has led to the shrinking world by displaying information to people around the world as well as allowing businesses to intervene in foreign markets.

Social media/networks led to the shrinking world as it keeps people connected, meeting new people and seeing different cultures and creative outlets, while businesses have advertisement opportunities.

Electronic banking has led to the shrinking world as it mixes currency's and allows for foreign investments and businesses to work together.

Fibre optic has led to the shrinking world as it provides a faster connection for people to stay in contact.

Sengal                  57% Internet users                    67% mobile phone users.

Singapore            91-95% Internet users          75% mobile phone users

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Positives of a TNC

TNC- Trans National Cooperation

Apple's headquarters are in Cupertino, California.

Apple's manufacturing place is in shenzen, China.

Benefits Apple brings to local area of China:

  • Employee housing
  • Paved roads and built power plants.
  • Covers energy and transportation costs.
  • Creates jobs and drives growth
  • Develops this part of the city.
  • Drives economic growth
  • Aid in infrastructure, labour, taxes and exports.

Example Apple outsourcing- Foxconn, in China.

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Negatives of a TNC

Negatives of Apple in China:

  • Unbalanced economy emphasising on experts and investment with less than 60% of GDP.
  • Defeating smaller competitors.
  • Suicide rate increases
  • Dishonest corporate policy
  • E-waste and environmentall destruction
  • Financial affair
  • Harsh labour conditions and child labor accusations.
  • Collaborations with US government and NSA.

Environmental issues of Apple:

  • Retiance on coal to power its servers
  • High estimated electricity consumption
  • Toxic components
  • Poor policies relating product take-bak and recycling
  • Polluted a river in China
  • Trashed tropical forests and coral reefs in Indonesia with tin in the phone.
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Economic liberalisation- private companies and individuals own the means of production. Lower government regulation, free market/capitalism.

Outsourcing- moving operations overseas to take advantage of lower costs, involves third party companies.

Offshoring- moving operations overseas to take advantage of lower costs, while still staying in the same company.

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Intergovernmental organisations

IGOs- Intergovernmental organisations- groups that are made up of different countries that make an agreement on a certain aspect of policy.

IMF-International Monetary Fund

  • Observe the international economy and evaluate the economic policies of 189 countries.
  • Provide loans to struggling countries, but only if they fix the policies that caused them to struggle.

World Bank (acts like a charity)

  • Involved in providing grants to developing nations for specific projects.
  • Usually infrastructure projects designed to help developing/emerging nations.

WTO- World trade Organisation

  • Regulates international trade between nations providing rules for trade- increased world trade.
  • Without WTO, the average country would face an increase in tariffs (taxes) on their exports by 32%.
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Dereliction- abandoned buildings

Depopulation- decrease in population

Deindustrialisation- industry reducing

USA Rustbelt (detroit)


  • Loss of jobs, depopulation and 31,000 empty houses.
  • 36% of people living below the poverty line
  • 27.8% of residential vacancy
  • 23% unemployment
  • 40% of streetlights don't work.
  • 5,000 boarded-up houses, 1/4 of the city's buildings.
  • Crime capital of America
  • 70,000 abandoned buildings
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  • Population has fallen from 1,850,000 in 1950 to 680,000 in 2015.
  • 12th in the US cities populatin ranking system.
  • Rust belt to sun- belt migration, people moved to warmer climates.
  • Racial strife.
  • Prior to this Great Migration, the African-American population in Detroit was approximately 6,000.
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Global demographics

Demographics- the study of human populations.

Birth rate- the number of baby's born per year, per one thousand of the population.

Developed country (New Zealand); 12

Developing country (Rwanda); 31

Death rate- the number of deaths per one thousand of the population per year.

New Zealand; 7.5/1,000 population

Rwanda; 5/1,000

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Global demographics

Infant mortality rate- number of baby's that die before the age of 1, per 1,000 life births.

New zealand; 3.5

Rwanda; 29

Fertility rates- the average number of baby's a woman has.

New Zealand; 1.8

Rwanda; 3.8

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Japan's ageing population

People aged 65 and older in Japan, make up a quarter of it't total population, estimated to reach a third by 2050.


  • A smaller population could make the country's metropolitan areas more livable, and stagnation of economic output might benefit a shrinking workforce.
  • Inverted population pyramid makes it difficult to care for elderly.

Aged dependency ratio- the ratio of people over 65 to those aged 15-65, indicating the ratio of the depent elderly population to those of working age.

  • 2/5 workers were aged

Migration of young people into Japan's major cities, entrance of woman into the workforce, and increasing cost of care have required new solutions including; nursing homes, adult daycare centers and home health programs.

  • Thousands of solitary deaths each year.
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Japan's ageing population


  • 8 million abandoned homes in Japan.

By 2030, most countries in the world will have an ageing population, except for those in Africa.

  • Japan does not have enough facilities to meet the demand of an increasingly ageing population.
  • Japan is using automation (e.g. Robots and educative dolls) in hospitals to deal with ageing population.
  • More old people=higher pension costs for the country
  • Keeping old people working.

Dependency ratio- number or percentage of economically inactive people compared to working age.

UK dependency ratio 56.17%

Japan dependency ratio 67.4%

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Japan's shortage of workers

Shortages of workers:

  • 1/5 people in Japan is older than 70
  • 2000 to 1.3 million foreign workers in a year.
  • Increasing the social security burden and benefits has a direct impact on economic growth by reducing the labour force.
  • Japans GDP may change by over 1% over the next three decades.
  • Japan would need to raise it's retirement age to 77 to maintain it's worker-to-retiree ratio.
  • 1.5 vacancies for every job applicants.
  • Half a million foreign workers into Japan by 2025.
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