Geography Paper 2


Global Patterns of Urban Change

  • URBANISATION  is the process by which an increasing percentage of a country's population come to live in town and cities. 
  • All countries have increased rates of urbanisation. By 2050, 70% of the worlds population will be living in cites.
  • HICs like the UK experienced urbanisation earlier during the industrial revolution for example and the majority of the poluation currently live in cities. They experience the slowest growth rate ad many end up moving to the countryside as they belive the quality of life is better there. This is known as counter urbanisation and good transport means people can live in the countryside and commut to work daily. 
  • LICs such as Nepal and Ethiopia exepreince the fastest growth rates as more people are moving to cities in search of jobs due to the mechanisation of farming.
  • NEEs such as Brazil also experience fast growth compared to HICs. 
1 of 47

Factors Affecting Urban Change

  • Urbanisation is caused by rural to urban migration and natural increase 
  • Rural to urban migration is the moemenet of people from the countryside into the big cites. This is because of push and pull factors 
  • Push factors - lack of opportunities / jobs , Natural diasasters (droughts and floods) which may have damaged properties beyond repair, Mechanisation of farming , Desertification, Conflict/war 
  • Pull factors - more access to health care, Access to higher education, Higher paid jobs , Other family members may already live there , Higher standard of living and a better quality of life
  • Natural increase is when the birth rate is higher than the death rate. More young people live in urban areas and they are likely to have children which will increase the birth rate. Better access to healthcare means that the death rat is lower in some urban rates
  • Better access to healthcare in urban areas mean that people are living longer. This increases the proportion of people living in urban areas
2 of 47


  • Megacities are urban areas with a total population in excess of 10 million people. An example is Paris in France. 
  • In 11975, there were only 4 megacities but in 2015, there were 27 megacities in the world
  • Most megacities are located in Asia where there is a lot of rural to urban migration. 
  • The vast majority of mega-cities have coastel locations as you need this for urban growth which develops the economy. Economic growth createss jobs, which attract people who bring the ideas and enterprise that cities thrive on. 
  • The creation of formal jobs allows countries to grow as there are more formal, tax-paying jobs. This leads to economic growth in the country  
3 of 47

Distribution of Population and Major Cities in the

  • The population distribution in the UK is very uneven.Many of the major cities have developed into conurbations which are towns which have merged to from continious urban areas which have a high population density 
  • Upland regions such as the North of Scotland have a low population density and have a very few natural resources.They are difficult to farm
  • London is the UK's biggest city and has the highest population density. It has many industries 
  • The number of major cities decrease as you go further up North. As we go from England to Wales to Ireland, the number of cities also decreases
  • Many coastel areas such as Cardiff have quiet a high population density as there are areas which are suitable for harbours. This is essential for trade to occurr
  • Most urban areas are lowland as they are easier to build on and have a milder climate
  • There was a population increase in central England as this was where industry such as coal mines first developed. There is mineral wealth in this area
4 of 47

Zones in Cities

  • The Central Business Distrcit is located in the middle of a town or city and it has main public buildings, trains and bust staions. It also has hotels, shops , offices and restaurants an is often surrounded by ring roads. 
  • The inner city is mainly residentals but with some businesses and recreational parks. There are many short , parallel roads 
  • The suburbs are found towards the edge of the city and they are mainly residentail areas with semi-detached houses. There are short, curved streets here
  • The rural -urban fringe is on the edeg of the city and it has farmalnd and open spaces. It also has new housing development and large retail and business parks. On maps, this is areas of white space wih some built up ares. 
5 of 47

London - The Importance of the city

  • London is located in Western Europe in the UK. It is in the south east of england and it surrounds the River Thames
  • It generates 22% of the GDP which is used to build infrastructure and fund the NHS
  • It is one of the two most important financial centres in the world. This attracts high-skilled workers who will do highy paying jobs and pay more money as tax to the government
  • It is the headquarters of many TNCs which adds value to the UK and helps to build vital infrastructure as the companies need to pay the governent to locate here. This increases government budget and so money can be invested into improving infrastructure
  • It is the national and international centre for media and communications networks. they advertise life in the UK and encourage poeple to visit here. The increases in tourism boosts the economy
  • It is the center for tourism 
  • Has many renowned universities which attracts international studens
6 of 47

Impacts of Migration on the Growth and Character o

  • Migrants are young and more likely to have children, increasing the birth rate and causing natural increase. This also means that London has a very good night life with many pubs and bars 
  • Communities are lost as people move in and out
  • There is a big cultural mix. In Brick Lane, there are even road signs in different languages. This means people are more exposed to cultures and tend to be more tolerant.There are also festivals like Notting Hill which take place there anually 
  • Wide variety of foods from all over the world
  • Shoreditch ,in London is known to be trendy , due to artists moving ther in the 1980s
  • There is a big tech industry in Shoreditch. Silicone Roundabout hires high skilled workers
7 of 47

Opportunities Created by Urban Change

  • Cultural mix - London is one of the most diverse palces in the world and has a large cultural mix. In three boroughs (Newham , Brent and Tower Hamlets), white people are now an ethnic minority.  This large cultural mix enriches London's cultural life and makes it an exciting place to live with various festivals such as the Notting Hill festival which brings in tourism. Schools are more diverse which elps to prevent racism as children become more aware and accepting of other cultures. However, people do not integrate which means that they do not exeperience the adavantages. There can also be cultural clashes. 
  • Recreation and Entertainment -  There is a lot of street enetertainment and many tourist attractions. The West End has a huge numer of shows to be seen and there are many concerts there. However, a lot of these activities are only available to those who can afford it 
  • Employment - it houses major finacial centers and a range of business specialisms which attract a highly skilled workforce who will pay tax to the government. It was responisble for 46% of the UK's GVA from the financial and insurance sectore. However, there are less opportunities available for low skilled workers and so there is a lot of unemployment 
  • Integrated Transport System - the Oyster card allows commuters to travel on most forms of transport quickly and effciently. Stations like St Pancras connect the UK to Europe. However, the capacity of the London Underground is not big enough for the growing population
8 of 47

Opportunities Created by Urban Change

  • Urban Greening - Lonodn is one of the greenest cities with 47% of the city being green space. There are various parks such as Hyde Park which are great habitats for wildlife. There are 13,00 species in London. The green spaces help to itigate climate chnage as trees absorbs carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, purifying the air. The parks are a great place for recreational acitivities which encourage people to exercise, making the population healthier. 
9 of 47

Challenges of Urban Growth - Social and Economic

  • Inequalities in housing - House prices in London are some of the highest in the country due to the growing population and lack of housing. The population is growing by about 100,000 homes each year but only 20,000 are being built. This means that many live in poor quality accomodation but some live in the most expensive in the world. A solution to this is building on greenfield sites or brownfield sites
  • Education - the schools in the poorest areas of London have the lowest number of GCSE points. This means that unemployment rates are higher as many do not have enough qualifications to get high paying jobs. However, some of the schools in the poorest boroughs are the fatest improving 
  • Health - the wealthier areas of London such as Chelsea have a high life expectancy but Tower Hamlets has a low life expectancy compared to this. 
  • Employment - 16% of Londoners are the poorest tenth nationally but 17% are the wealthiest. Unemployment is a major issue as the unemployment rate is 1.6% higher than the UK average 
  • Urban Depreivation - this is when the standard of living below that of the majority in a population that involves hardship and lack of access to resources. Areas such as Barking and Newham suffer urban deprivation as there is a low life expectancy due to poor diet, housing , education and unemployment 
10 of 47

Challenges of Urban Growth - Environmental

  • Urban dereliction - There is around 250 hectares of brownfield sites which are not being used for any development. The abandoned buildings become targets fro grafitti, vandalism and squatters many move in here. This land can be brought back to life as shown in the 2012 olympics. 
  • Brownfield and Greenfield sites - brownfield sites are previously developed areas which are derelict and could be redeveloped. This will reduce urban sprawl , preserving more of the country side but the land may need to be decontaminated before. It could also be expensive to knock down buildings there. Building on greenfield sites causes urban sprawl and means valuable farmland is lost. 
  • Air pollution - this is a major problem due to vehicals and heating. One of the main pollutants is nitrogen dioxide which causes respiratory problems. The particulats from industry can get trapped in airways, causing breathing difficulties and lung diseases.There are 4000 premature deaths per year due to exposure to air pollution 
  • Waste Disposal - 25% of the wast produced in London ends up in landfill sites which contributes to the production of methane , a greenhouse gas. The majority of the waste is incinerated to produce energy and carbon dioxide is released when this happens. However, the London waste management strategy was introduce to achieve 0 waste ging to landfill sites by 2030 by reducing and mangaing resources 
11 of 47

Impacts of Urban Sprawl on the Rural - Urban Fring

  • Large housing estates have been built on greenfield sites which provide a pleasant living environment for people. However, habitats are lost and the eco-system is affected. 
  • Extra costs to tax payers to pay for infrastructure to allow building development to go ahead
  • Health issues such as high blood pressure are common as people living in these areas have to commute to work daily. This also increases traffic which could mean more accidents. 
  • Animals are dipaced from habitats. - eco-system fragmented 
  • It can also lead to the growth of commuter settelments such as Chatham and Reading. The people live here and would commute to work everyday in the big cities as housing is cheaper here. These new developments can affect the character of rural settlement and damage communities.
  • There could be an increase in house prices as there is lager demand. This may mean local people can no longer afford to live in the area and may have to move out. 
  • Commuter settlements can increase congestion and increase pollution. Businesses in settlements may suffer as people will spend money where they work rather than where they live.This could lead to unemplyment 
  • An alternative to building on greenfield sites is building on brownfield land 
12 of 47

Urban Regeneration - Stratford

  • Newham and the Lower Lea Valley is in East London adn was the site for the 2012 Olympics. The river Lea is a tributary of the river Thames and was one of the most industrial regions in London in the past
  • Newham is one of the most deprived areas in London and there was high uenmployemnt rate after the closure of the docks due to containerisation and factories outsourcing production in countries where labour was cheaper. Many of these sites were left overgrown and derelict.
  • The land was badly contaminated from the industry before .
  • Newham had the lowest GCSE point score in London and more than 50% of children were in poverty in 2009
  • Stratford was a  good place for the Olympics as there were large areas of unused land and it had very good transport connections. They wanted to leave a lasting legacy which will help regenrate Stratford which was very deprived before
  • The Olympics will provide jobs for people and will bring tourists to the area. However, housing will neet to be demolished and people's lives will be distrupted due to the construction work
13 of 47

London Olympics - Good points

  • There is a landscaped park which will attract tourists and provide habitats for animals, causing biodiversity to thrive. 
  • The land was decontaminated 
  • The building of Westfields shopping centre created 8,000 new jobs intended for the longterm unemployed people of Stratford. There was an academy to train these people. 35 small independent shops, cafes and restaurants were also built
  • 2,800 new home were bult in the Athlete's Village, helping to solve the lack of housing. 50% of this was meant to be social housing. 
  •  A new school was opened for 1,800 students between the ages 3-18
  • Stratford international was built. 
  • The olympic stadium could be used for future sporting events by the locals
14 of 47

London Olympics - Bad Points

  • Many of the original residents could not afford the new rents and were forced to move to somewhere else. 
  • A lot of money had been spent deconatminating the area before building could start. 
  • Businesses were forced to relocate and not everyone in the local area got jobs. 
  • The materials used to buid the arena had to be transported 
  • Some wildlife may have been disturbed by construction
15 of 47

The East Village - Sustainable Urban Living

  • The East Village is located in East London and it was originally built as a village for the athletes to stay at during the Olympics 
  • It contains modern, high density apartments built to a high standard of insulation and energy efficiency. Less heat is lost and so less energy is needed.Helps to reduce climate change as less energy needs to be produced. 
  • Shops and servivces are run by small,independent businesses so money stays in the economy as people are not going elsewhere to buy things. The money can be used to improve the local area for the future generations.The local people also get jobs
  • 10 hectares of open green space is there. This makes this an area where people want to live in as they encourage people to exercise and use bikes which are environmentally friendly. THis makes people happier and less stresses. The trees also absorb carbon dioxide and reduce the risk of flooding 
  • Green roof on top of apartment blocks 
  • There could be toilets which use grey water or less water to flush in order to conserve water as there is a growing demand for water and a small supply. 
  • Rainwater is also filtered and used to flush toilets 
16 of 47

Urban Transport Schemes and Traffic Managaement

  • The Sanatander cycle hire scheme in London help to reduce congestion and cycling is green and healthy. The physical activity is good for people but there could be accidents as the bikes do not come with helmets. 
  • The congestion charge in central London increased the number of passengers using buses and the money can then be invested back into the governmenet to improve transport in London. However, congestion levels have now returned back to the original level 
  • Electric car charging points encourage  more people to buy electric cars which don't release any greenhouse gases. However, the cars are very expensive to buy and most of the electricty produced in the Uk is generated using fossil fuels 
  • Ring roads and pedestrianised shopping streets keep traffic away from city centres , making it safer and reducing congestion 
  • Car sharing schemes encourage people with similar routes to share cars and carpool lanes will be faster than normal lanes.
  • Bus priority lanes stop buses from being held up in traffic and makes them seem more attractive to travel on
  • integrated transport system with the oyster card makes it easier to travel
17 of 47

Lagos - Importance of the City

  • Lagos is located in Nigeria in Western Africa. It is located in the Western Coast near the Gulf of Guinea 
  • It is the home of Nigeria's film industry known as Nollywood and is the capital of Africa's music industry
  • It is the main financial centre for West Africa. Eko Atlantic will provide jobs for many in the area
  • 80% of Nigeria's industry is located here
  • There are large oil and gas reserves in Nigeria 
  • It has a major international airport and a busy port where trade happens 
18 of 47

Lagos Oppportunities

  • There are more healthcare centres and hospitals there than in the rural areas. However, this is not free 
  • More people can attend school as there are more schools there. However, some schools are not free and you need to pay to attend
  • Water treatment plants means that those who are rich can have clean water pumped straight to their homes. Most people however use public taps or buy water from water vendors 
  • People have access to electricty for cooking and lighting. This can then be used by the to build businesses to pay for their lifestyle. There are plans to build 2 new power station 
  • More jobs are available ther than anywhere else in Nigeria. For example, there are a lot of construction jobs due to rapid growth 
  • Lagos is also home to the thriving film an music industry - NOLLYWOOD
  • There are more school and universities which means that people have the oppportunity to learn the skills which will enable them to get the high paying jobs 
  • Eko Atlantic will generate 150,000 new jobs and accommodate up to 25,000 residents 
19 of 47

Lagos Challeneges

  • 60% of the city's population live in slums like Makoko 
  • The houses are flimsy and badly built. This means they can collapse easily, especially after heavy rain, leaving the people homelesss
  • They have communal toilets and the sewage is dumped straight into the lagoon , contaminating water and killing fish. The people then drink the water and get cholera which will spread very easily. No fish left in the lagoon so livlihoods are lost
  • Electricity comes from illegal connection and there are often power cuts. Not many hosues have clean water and have to buy it 
  • There is a high crime rate and drugs are a big problem. The government bought 2 new helicopters to deal with the issue but this is not enough 
  • Most people work in the informal economy doing jobs like prostitution , fishing and working in alndfill sites such as the Olunson dump. The workers do not pay tax and so less money goes back to the economy, making it difficult to improve the area. This means that there are no services such as rubbish collecting and so rubbish ends up in the lagoon. They are building Eko Atlantic to attract more formal jobs to the area
20 of 47

Lagos Challeneges

  • Traffic congestion - an average commuter will spend 3 hours in traffic and fatal accident rate is very high due to lack of road safety and no pavements for pedestrians. The governemnet inrtoduced the Bus Rapid Transit sytem to reduce this problem. It transports workers from the suburbs to the CBD. It is faster but a single route is not enough for the vast city 
  • They also want to build an integrated taransport systme which links railways and roads together to make journeys easier 
  • Only 10% of the population have a apiped tap water system. The rest rely on vendors or on wells for water. The water in the boreholes and wells are mostly polluted from sewage. This causes cholera to increase. However, the Lagos State Water Regulatory Commission began in 2012 and it regulates the water supply, ensuring that safe water is available at reasonable costs
  • Another challenge is that 90% of the jobs in Lagos are in the informal economy. Many work in dumps like the Olunson dump or doing jobs like washing cars. These jobs are not secure and mean that less money is being paid back into the economy to make improvemnets. Howevre, Eko-Atlantic wll be the new financial hub of West Africa and hopes to attract more highly skilled workers
  • On 40% of rubbish is collected properly. There are large toxic dumps of waste on streets
21 of 47

Urban Planning in Lagos

  • The Makoko flaoting school was built which classrooms for up to 60 pupils. It was built using loacal building materials and contains a green space which purifies the air. Rainwater is collected which can be purfied so it can be used as drinking water. Educating the children gives them skills which they can use to get jobs. However, the school sank and the infrastructue is not being mainatained
  • There are programs for youth to stop getting into crime
  • The Makoko floating school can be used as a community center during out of school hours 
  • Many houses in Makoko are built on stilts and create gardens which ca be used to grow crops which they can sell to make money 
  • The school is environmentally sustainable with solare panels and is built to be able to withstand the impact of rising sea levels 
  • They have developed new areas of the city where people can be rehoused. However, rents are rising in these areas meaning thta the poorer people are unable to afford housing there 
  • However, the infrastructure is not being maintained
22 of 47

Measuring Development

  • Development is progress in economic growth, use of technology and improving welfare that a country has made. When a country develops, the quality of life improves for the poeple. This is economic (income,job security) , physical ( diet , water supply, climate) , Social (family, friends, access to eduacation ) and phsychological (happiness, freedom, security ). There are emasures of development and they are : 
  • GNI - The total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year. It is high in HICs and low in LICs. However, it is crude way and may not be accurate. It may be hard to obtain the information due to conflct 
  • Birth rate - High in LICs and low in LICs. The dat may not always be accurate
  • Detah rate - High in LICs and low in LICs. Not all data may be recorded 
  • Infant Mortality rate - High in LICs and low in HICs. However, not all data is recorded as many children are buried in unmarked graves 
  • Life expectancy - High in HICs and low in LICs. However, in a country with a high infant mortality rate, the average life expectancy will be high 
  • People per doctor - people in rurral areas may use mobiles to get medical advice which is not counted  
  • Literacy rate - carrying out surveys in rural areas is difficult 
  • Access to safe water - official data underestimates declining water quality due to flooding
23 of 47

Human Development Index (HDI)

  • The human development index takes income, life expectancy and eduaction into account to produce a number between 0 and 1 to measure development 
  • It removes bias as it as it takes a number of measures into account, making it more accurate 
  • Using only one measure to measure development may not be as good because some factors develop before others, making a country seem more developed than it actually is
24 of 47

Causes of Uneven Development - Historical

  • Colonisation - countries which were colonised and later gained independence are less developed than those which had not been. The other countries drained the country of raw materials and made people slaves. This was bad for development as it made the colonised country dependent on the other country. They built infrastructure such as road which are still used today and introduced education at primary level. Colonisation made counties like Africa dependent on Europe and it led to famine and malnutrition 
  • Corrupt leaders - they sell reources cheaply to TNCs for their own profit. The money is not put back into the local economy to improve it, 
  • Fluctuating food prices - the price of cocoa beans halved in the 1990s due to over production which slowed down development as farmers earn less.
  • Conflict - money is spent on fighting the war instead of improving the economy by deveoping infrastructure. A lot of properties are damaged and healthcare could become worse, leading to a high infant mortality rate. This creates uneven development 
25 of 47

Causes of uneven development - Physical factors

  • Access to coatslines - countries which are landlocked are unable to trade as they do not have access to the coast. This may mean they are less developed. 
  • Natural Hazards - they can cause death, injury and damage infrastructure. As people are injured , they are unable to work and money has to be spent on repairing and rebuilidng instead of being invested in the economy to iprove it. They reduce the quality of life 
  • Climate - good climate means that a lot of crops will grow which emans that people have more crops to sell. They will have a larger income which could improve their quality of life. The farmers will pay more tax which can be used to improve vital services like healthcare
  • Few raw materials - countries with fewer natural resources like coal or metal ores make less money as they have fewer products to export. This means that they have less money to sped on development. However, some countries with a lot of raw materials do not have the money or infrastructure to exploit them and so do not make much money
26 of 47

Causes of Uneven Development - Economic

  • Lots of debt - the money borrowed by poor countries has to be paid back, sometime with intrest. This money could have been used to develop the country 
  • Poor trade links - the country will not earn much money as it willl not trade a lot and so less money can be invested in development projects because less money is being made 
  • An economy based on Primary Products - countries which export primary products like metal tend to be elss developed as they don't make much money from doing this. The prices also fluctuate, meaning people make less money and so the government have less money to spend on devlopment. Selling manufactured goods is more profitable 
27 of 47

Consequences of Uneven Problem

  • People in a more developed country have higher income tha those is in poorer countries. In 2000, the richest 1% owned 40% of global assests. The Gini Coeffecient can be used to study internal disparities. The higher the score, the less equal the socitey is 
  • Healthcare is better in more developed countries and the life expectancy tends to be higher in HICs. Richer countries ten to suffer from different dieses which are linked with obesity and there are a large number of people wth diabetes. This is because they tend to over-indulge and have high rates of obesity because of this.
  • It can cause international migration as people want to enter the country with a wider variety of oppportunities available to them. For example, Niger has a very high birth rate which is increasing. This means that there is not enough jobs for them in the future. In Sudan, there are refugees due to famine and war.Many flee countries seeking a better quality of life. Highly skilled workers from countries may migrate in search of higher paying jobs which will slow down thw country's growth. This is because they are draining their expertise and taking away the highly skilled workers of the country
  • Migrants from poorer countries will send money home in the form of remittence. 
  • The people in more developed countries tend to have a higher income than those in LICs. They normally have a higher GNI
28 of 47

Reducing the development gap

  • Aid - this is given by one country to another as money or resources. This money can be spent on development projects such as building schools to improve literacy rate. This can reduce health inequalities and improve the quality of life. It can also offer people better opportunities for education. An example is the One laptop per child scheme funded by Google. Aid can help develop an area but it can make countries reliant on it and projects can fail when money runs out and there isn't enough local knowledge to support it. Corrupt governmnets may end up stealing the money
  • Intermediate technology - includes tools , machinery and systems which are easy to use but will improve the quality of life for the people. They are cheap to buy, build and maintain. An example is the Afridev pump which helps to provide clean water to people in Tanzania. It is not sophisticated and can be used by locals and easy to mend. Life expectancy has increased as a result of cleaner water and fewer deaths form drinking cholera. Education has also improved as children are missing fewer days of school. They will learn more skills, enabling them to get high paying jobs and buy themselves out of poverty 
  • Microfinance - Small loans are given to people enabling them to start a business. An example is the phones for women scheme in Bangladesh. The people are no longer unemployed and can ern money to buy food. They will have a sustainable income. Not effective for large scale use 
29 of 47

Tourism in Tunisa

  • Tunisa is NEE in North Africa is a popular tourist destinaion for its good climate and cheap package holidays offered by companies such as Thomas Cook
  • Foreign currency spent by tourists can be reinvested into the economy to improve education and healthcare, causing literacy rates to rise to 79%. 
  • 370,000 jobs have been created for the local people in the service idustry and construction 
  • Infrastructure is improved to benefit tourisys and locals can even benefit from this. 
  • The life expectance has increased as gvernement is investing 4% of the GDP into improving healthcare 
  • However, most of the money does not reach Tunisa and goes to travel companies
  • Most large companies employ foreign workers in high positions so limits the level of work Tunisians can reach and the amount the can earn 
  • Some beaches have been polluted with untreated sewage form hotel 
  • Terrorism, such as the attacks in 2015 targeted at tourists has reduced foreign investment in the region 
30 of 47

Nigeria - Importance Globally and Locally

  • It produces 27% of the world's oil making it the 12th largest producer. The oil is exported to other countries such as the UK 
  • It is the 5th largest contributer to the UN peacekeeping missions around the world
  • It is home of the African film and music industry
  • It is the financial centre for West Africa 
  • It is the 21st largest economy in the world and is still experiencing growth 
31 of 47

Influences upon Nigeria's development

  • Nigeria only became independent in 1960s and only gained a stable government after a civil war and political corruption. Stability has encouraged global investement from countries such as China. Previously, was exploited by European countries 
  • Nigeria is multi-ethnic , multi-faith country which has led to some conflict.Economic disparaties between the North and the South has led tor eligious and ethnic tensions resulting in the creation of terrorist groups such as the Boko Haram 
  • Nigeria is known to be the home of Nollywood and its music is very popular 
  • Southern Nigeria has high temperatures with a high annual rainfall. The far north is semi-desert and the Jos Plateua is a region which is cooler and wetter than the surrounding Savannah 
32 of 47

Changing Industrial Structure

  • Employment in Agriculture has fallen due to mechanisation of farming. There is also better pay in other sectors of the economy. Industrailisation and economic growth under the stable government has increased employment in oil production and motor manufacturing (secondary sector) 
  • This is increasing foreign investment 
  • There has been a growth in the tertiary sector in fields such as communication, retail and finance as well
33 of 47

Changing Links and Relationships

  • Nigeria is no longer part of the British Empire after gaining independence and has become a member of the Commonwealth 
  • It contributes to peacekeeping missions in the UN 
  • Plays a leading role in the African Union
  • It i a mjor global trading nation. The largest amount of exports from Nigeria is to the EU and its main exports are petroelum and natural gases. The demand for this in the USA has fallen due to the discovery of shale oil there
  • 40% of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. Australia and Indonesia are the biggest consumers of cotton 
34 of 47

The Impacts of TNCs

  • TNCs usually have their headquarter in one country and production in several others.They locate in foreign countries to take adavantage of tax incentives, less strict environmental laws and cheaper labour.Many TNCs operate in Nigeria 
  • Advantages - companies provide meployment and the development of new skills , more money is spent on the economy, investement by companies on local infrastructure and education , other local companies benefit from increased orders 
  • Diadavanatges - working conditions are sometimes very poor and they are poorly paid, much of the profit generated goes abroad, grants and subsidies used to attract the companies could have been invested in nigerian industries 
  • Shell oil in Nigeria - one of the largest oil companies in the world 
  • Benefits - provides direct employment to 65,000 Nigerian workers and 250,000 jobs in related industry, the government benefit from tax payed by Shell which can be spent on improving education or healthcare, Shell has invested in social schemes such as providing 30000 secondary school scholarships to children and providing people with microfinance schemes 
  • Costs - oil spills (like the Bodo oil spill) have caused water pollution and soil degradation, making farming difficult, the locals do not get paid fairly , gas flares and toxic fumes have caused pollution, oil theft can cost government and TNCs a lot of money
35 of 47

Aid in Nigeria

  • The UK has funded a health and HIV program 
  • The world Bank had aproved $500 million fund for development of long term business projects and fund micro-finace loans. Provides people with jobs, givig them money to buy food and water
  • Mosquito nets were donated and there were programs to educate people about malaria. This has led to better health and higher life expectancy 
  • However, aid delivered through the government can be less successful as the government may be corrupt and may divert money for other uses. The donors may use it to promote commercial self interest
36 of 47

Effects of Economic Development

  • Nigeria is now a NEE
  • Life expectancy has increased to 53 years 
  • 64% have access to safe water 
  • Typical schooling years have increased
  • The regular work gives people a secure income, meaning the home market increase 
  • It can lead to the multiplier effect and may lead to even more investment in the are 
  • the revenues from tax increase as more people are employed 
  • Ther has been a growth in the chemical industry as the oil industry has created a chemical by product 
37 of 47

Environmental Impacts of Economic Development

  • Desertification is a major probem due to large scale dams and irrigation schemes. 
  • Some industries dispose chemical waste into rivers, polluting them. Harmful to both people and the eco-system 
  • 70-80% of forest has been destroyed 
  • Increase in repiratory and heart problems as a result of factories 
  • Waste disposal has become a big issue
  • Commercial farming has led to land degradation 
  • Many species have dispapperaed due to deforeststaion 
  • The Bodo Oil Spill led to 70,000 people losing their livelihood as the loss of the main source of water. They are no longer self suffiecient and children can no longer go to school as parents can't pay for it 
  • Magroves (habitats) were destroyed and soil is infertile 
  • This can be resolved by cleaning up the land which will mean peple can return back to their jobs , The residents were paid £55 million compenstaion because of this 
38 of 47

The Causes of Economic Change in the UK

  • De - industrialisation - this is the decline in manufacturing and the subsequent growth of tertiary and quartenary sector due to machines replacing people in factories. labour is also cheaper abroad and there is lack of investement due to high labour costs and outdated machinery. This has led to the decline in coal industry and an increase in finance
  • Globalisation - this is the growth and spread of ideas around the world. A lot of manufacturing has moved abroad due to lower labour costs. This has led to increase in teritary business in the UK and has allowed finace to grow. For example, HSBC , a chinese cmpany has a branch in the UK, It has also allowed, music and film industries to grow as well as retail (SuperDry). Globalisation has meant that people in the UK are higher paid and means that goods are cheaper. However, may factories had to close and many lost their jobs. It is harder for low skilled workers to find jobs creating a lot of inequality
  • Governemnt Policies - state run businesses were sold to private owners and older industries closed down.The private companies brought innvoation and chnage. The derelict areas were transformed into offices. They have also invested more on improving the infrastructure, encouraging global firms to locate within the UK. This was done to encourage the growth of the manufacturing sectors
39 of 47

The Post Industrial Economy

  • Post industrial economy - where manufacturing industry is replaced by the growth of the service industry and the corresponding growth of the quartenary sector
  • Development in IT (software egineer,software developer ) - Internet acces enables people to work from home and communication ahs allowed easy access around the world. This attracts investement from abroad and employs 1.3 million people
  • Service industries and finance (Doctor , Insurance, Fund management) - the UK is the world's leading centre for financial services. accounts for 10% of the GDP and employs over 2 million people 
  • Reasearch (scientist, engineer) - developed the importace of highly qualifies people and the role of universities in reasearch and growth of the economy. Contributes over £3 million to the economy 
40 of 47

UK Science and business parks

  • A science park is agroup os scientific and technica; knowledge based businesses located on a single site. Most are with universities. An example is Cambridge Science Park. It is close to motorways and close to cambridge university. It is close to airports and town centre.They are typically on the edge of town as land is cheaper and it is easier to expand. 
  • They are landscaped well and have large car parks. They are located in places with nice residential areas and the businesses located there share workers and resources
  • It is close to Stanstead airport and is linked by regular bus routes
  • There are over 100 hi-tech companies there. For example, Toshiba and Microsoft
  • There are recreational areas for joging and many cafes. There are electric car charging points and have a nusery. There are 20 acres of landscaped gardens which attrcat wildlife 
  • High-tech industry provides jobs 
  • Other companies have developed in Cambridge to supply hi-tech comapnies with supplies. creates low skilled jobs 
  • The park is close to the university so it can draw on knowledge 
  • Development of synergy - the intense localised interaction between companies which benefits all. May attract future investment
41 of 47

Environmental Impacts of Industry

  • The waste products from car manufacturing are often taken to landfill which can pollute water, air and soil 
  • Industrial processes can cause air and water pollution 
  • The transporting of raw materials and products is usually by roads which increases air pollution and damages the environment when new roads are built 
  • Technology can be used to reduce harmful emission such as sulphur dioxide and desulpherisation can remove harmful gases as well. 
  • Stricter environmental targets could be put in place to reduce emission 
  • Heavy fines coud be imposed when industrial pollution ocurrs 
  • Quarrying can have a damagin impact on the environment. It can destroy habitats an pollute nearby water sources, killing wildlife. Companies are expected to restore or improve the quality of a quarry once it has been used. This could be landfill, hosuing or habitat creation. There are strict controls on blasting and removing dust. Recycling is encouraged. 
  • Torr Quarry in Somerset is where rock chippings are ebing mined for to be used in contrsuction. The quarry will be restored to create wildlife lakes for recreation and 200 acres have been landscaped to blend in with the surrounding. Rail transport is used to minimise impact on road and there is a regular monitoring of dust emission and water quality
42 of 47

Changing rural Areas

  • Population increase (Hurstpierpoint ) - more people want ot live in rural areas and be able to commute to work regularly. House prices have risen, meaning many of the old residents ahve had to move away as they can no longer afford housing there. cultural change happens. 
  • Population decline (Capel Dewi) - young people move away in search of better opportunities in big cities. This has ed to closure of businesses as there are less customers and little profit. This means people have to travel further to shop which means their fuel cost will increase. This can also mean an ageing population. More pensions have to be paid by the government as pension , meaning less disposable income to spend on improving the area
43 of 47

The North South Divide

  • The South have a higher GDP and have higher house prices compared to the North. The South has a slightly higher average life expectancy and higher employment rates. 
  • The Nothern Power House strategy was introduced by the government to reduce this divide. This involves devoloping the economies in major cities in the North as well as tourism and energy.This is to attract investment in the North and imrpove transport links between the northern cities
  • Money has been invested in building a new high speed railway between London and the North. A new port is to be built in Liverpool to make trade easier 
  • Local enterprise partenerships have been introduced where local authorities try and encourage companies to invest in local businesses,creating jobs and boosting the economy. This can lead to imrpoved infrastructure as the governmnet ensure that superfast broadband is available
  • A BT inevestement will increase superfast broadband across the region
  • 55 enterprise zones have been created which offer a range of benfits fro comapnies who chose to relocate there. There are simpler planning rules which make it easier to make certain devlopmnet like building new buildings. There is also improved infrastructure. This is done to enocurage companies to relocate to areas with high unemployment
44 of 47

Improving Transport Networks

  • Rail - the HS2 will link Birmingham to London meaning businesses will relocate there due to easy access. however, it will ruin the countryside. The cross-rail in London will go from Reading  to the other end of London 
  • Ports -  new port in London Gateway will open and will be able to handle the world's largest container ship. Allows trade
  • Airports - a new runway will be to Hetahrow which will enocurage businesses to move branches to the UK, improving the economy 
  • Roads - the super ighway in the south west will connect cut off and isoalted parts and create 1,300 jobs in constructions. Journeys would be improved for millions 
45 of 47

Reducing the development gap

  • Fair Trade - farmers will get a fair price for goods produced in LICs. On top of the fair price, buyers also pay an extra amount to devlop the area where the goods come from. For example, to build a new schools. This creates jobs for locals and allows them to use skills they already have. However,  many consumers are unwilling to pay the higher price and much of the extra money is kept back by the retailer.
  • Debt Relief - when some or all of a country's debt is cancelled or interest rates are lowered. This means they have more money to spend on devlopment. For example , Zambia's debt was cancelled in 2005 which enabled them to start a healthcare system the following year. Some argue that it is a reward for countries that lack financial discipline. 
  • Economic Investement - Foreign-direct investment is when people of TNCs invest money in another country. For example, Chinese companies have invested in African countries, providing emplyment to millions. Could mena imrpoved infrastructure and may cause more TNCs to invest (multiplies effect). However, workers can be exploited
  • Industrial Development - moving away from primary sector into manufacturing means goods can be sold at a higher price. Less vulnerable to price fluctuations. Increased profit for companies means government can tax more , meaning they have more money to develop healthcare. Increases GNI means imroved infrastructure and level of skill. However, the workers could be exploited 
46 of 47

UK in wider world

  • The UK is part of the EU which is an economic and political partnership of 28 countries. Membership makes trade within those countries cheap and make it easier to travel there too. This means that jobs can be advertised throughout Europe to get those with the best skills. It means that we can get low priced goods due to the single marker and ensures workers are protected. 
  • However, it is costly to be a member of the EU and it has led to overcrowding in some UK cities due to the fact that people are freely allowed to move from one country to another. 
  • The commonwealth is an association of 53 indepndent states which were ruled by Britain at some point. It exists to improve the well being of everyone in those countries. By being in the Commonwealth, trade deals are easy for the Uk and the commonwealth games bring a lot of money and promotes tourism within that country 
47 of 47


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Challenge of Urban World resources »