Geography Paper 2 Case Studies

  • Created by: Morgan.K
  • Created on: 03-06-18 10:20

Rio - Urban Growth (Importance)

National Importance - 

  • The main services include banking, finance and insurance.
  • The main manufacturing industries include chemical, pharmaceuticals, clothing, furniture and processed foods.

International Importance - 

  • Brazil held the 2014 world cup and the 2016 Olympics.
  • Brazillian carnival takes place every year.
  • Has five ports and three airports
  • Statue of Christ the Redeemer is one of the seven world wonders.
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Rio - Urban Growth (Growth)

Why has Rio grown?

  • Migrants seek economic opportunities in Rio.
  • Rio is a major centre for industry
  • Tourist attractions make people want to live there.
  • Hosted the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics
  • Has the same common language as Portugal.
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Rio - Urban Growth (Opportunities)

What opportunities are available to Rio?

  • A 'Schools of Tomorrow' programme is helping young children stay in school, this prevents drop out rates and also helps control drug crime in the city. (S)
  • Each of the schools in the 'Schools of Tomorrow' programme is equipped with nurses on hand to give children basic health checks. (S)
  • The 'Schools of Tomorrow' programme works with parents to become good role models. This helps lower crime rates. (S)
  • Coastal roads have been changed to one-way during rush hour to help with traffic congestion. (EV)
  • 12 new Sewage works have been built in 2004. (EV)
  • Ships to be fined for dumping fuel into the bay. (EV)
  • New toll roads into the city have been constructed. (EV)
  • New biogas power plant takes rubbish and turns it into electricity. (EV)
  • New Sewage pipes have been laid in bad areas. (EV)
  • Migrants produce money for the economy. (EC)
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Rio - Urban Growth (Challenges)

What are the Challenges Rio is Facing?

  • Shortage of nearby schools (S)
  • Small life expectancy (S)
  • Pregnant women and the elderly have poor care. (S)
  • 40% of water is lost through leaks in pipes. (S) 
  • Many people tap into the electricity supply. This is very dangerous. (S)
  • The number of cars has risen by over 40%. (EV)
  • Heavy traffic and congestion levels cause a black smog to cover the area. (EV)
  • Access to some areas is difficult, so there are no waste collections. (EV)
  • 200 tonnes of sewage flows into the bay each day. (EV)
  • The waste puts tourists off coming to the city (EC)
  • Many tourist places lose money (EC)
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Rio - Urban Growth (Barrio Favela Project)

What was the Barrio Favela Project?

A project which was going to benefit 25% o Rio favela by providing low-cost housing, job training and adult education. All new favelas were built with electricity, running water and sanitation pipes. Also, they were to widen the streets and paths to make access easier.

Did it succeed?

Yes, it improved the quality of life of many people and the employment within the area improved. People now had access and peoples health and sanitation improved.

Were there any Problems?

  • Residents lacked skills, so managing and maintaining the newly built buildings would be hard.
  • Due to poor sanitation in the area, the disease was able to spread very quickly.
  • The budget did not cover every favela.
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Rio - Urban Growth (Location)

Brazil = East of South America

Rio de Janeiro = South East Brazil

Amazon Rainforest = North of Rio.

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Birmingham - Urban Growth in the UK (Location)

Birmingham = Central England/North West of London

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Birmingham - Urban Growth in the UK (Importance)

National Importance -

  • 34,000 companies located in Birmingham, offering many jobs.
  • 3rd most popular place to relocate in the UK.
  • Half of all jewellery manufactured in the UK is manufactured in the Jewellery Quarter.

International Importance - 

  • Exports £29 billion worth of goods.
  • A third of all residents are from ethnic minorities.
  • Large airport.
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Birmingham - Urban Growth in the UK (Opportunities

What are the Opportunities Available to Birmingham?

  • The use of brownfield sites gives people homes and improves the site of the unused land. (EV)
  • 5000 students in Birmingham, which is good for the future economy. (S)
  • Large airport allows families and friends to see each other and allows people to visit Birmingham. (S)
  • Large communities of immigrants allow for different cultures to be shared and a new found respect for other to be developed. (S)
  • Larges number of business setups outside London enables many jobs for people and makes more money nationally. (EC)
  • Many tourist attractions bring in a lot of money. (EC)
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Birmingham - Urban Growth in the UK (Challenges)

What are the Challenges Birmingham is Facing?

  • High employment puts a strain on the government through payouts (10% bigger unemployment than the GB average) (EC)
  • Rising poverty makes living conditions worse and healthy eating falls. (S)
  • Companies begin to refuse to set up in bad places, this means fewer facilities for these people. (S)
  • Sub-standard housing allows for vandalism and disease spread. (S)
  • There's not enough space for people requiring homes, this means more greenfield must be used and more products must be produced. (EV)
  • The use of brownfield sites is more expensive. This makes people want to use greenfield sites more. (EV)
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BedZED - Sustainable Urban Living

How does BedZED promote Sustainable Living?

  • Thick walls enable no need for heating.
  • Air vents act as air conditioning.
  • Moss plants on the roof store rainwater for a constant supply.
  • Hot water is generated by burning wood chippings that would have gone to waste.
  • Rainwater is used for flushing the toilets.
  • Car sharing is used to prevent fuel consumption.
  • Near railway to promote public transport.
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Jamaica - Tourism

What is Jamaica's economy based upon?

  • Minerals
  • Agricultural Products
  • Some manufacturing

Jamaica has struggled with slow growth, debt and unemployment.

What is the effect of tourism?

  • It generates taxes, employment and income.
  • It has helped to raise the level of development.
  • Helped reduce the development gap.
  • Provides 200,000 people with jobs.

However - 

  • Many people still live in poverty, with inadequate access to clean water, healthcare and education.
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Jamaica - Tourism (Impacts)

Environmental Impacts - 

  • Footpath erosion
  • Excessive waste.
  • Harmful Emissions.
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Location)

Nigeria - Western Africa and lies along the coast of New Guinea.

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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Importance)

National Importance

  • HIghest GDP in Africa
  • The largest population in Africa
  • The largest amount of cattle in Africa.

International Importance 

  • 21st Largest economy in the world
  • 12th largest producer of oil
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Context)

Political - 

  • Free/fair elections and a stable government allow for companies to have confidence in Nigeria and set up.

Social -

  • Economic inequality between the north and south has led to ethnic and religious tensions.

Cultural - 

  • Has its own music and cinema that is enjoyed across the country.
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Industry)

In 1999 - 

  • Mainly Primary.
  • Some Tertiary
  • Very little Secondary

In 2012 - 

  • Less Primary
  • More Tertiary
  • Way more secondary
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Manufacturin

Trans National Corporation (TNC), has planted buildings in Nigeria, this has provided jobs to the people in Nigeria.

The companies have also supported healthcare, education and water supply 

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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (TNC)

Advantages - 

  • Provides Jobs
  • Helps with water supply, education and healthcare.
  • Brings in money for the country.

Disadvantages - 

  • Shell Oil has caused oil spills which have affected the environment
  • Toxic fumes are affecting the air.
  • Militant Groups affect the water supply.
  • Oil theft costs the government billions of dollars each year.
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Relationship

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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Aid)

  • Most aid comes from countries like the USA and the UK.
  • Some aid also comes from The World Bank and charities.
  • Most successful aid projects are small and community-based.
  • They help directly where it is needed, this makes sure no money is wasted.
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NIgeria - Rapid Economic Development (Ineffective

  • Corruption in governments and individuals means aid is lost or not given to the right people.
  • Claims that aid money has been used to supply the navy.
  • Donors of aid usually have political influence on who does and doesn't deserve aid.
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Development (Aid Benefits

  • Mosquito nets are given to prevent the spread of the disease malaria
  • Loans for businesses has been given to allow or a wider range of business setups. 
  • UK government has funded an HIV and health programme.
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Nigeria - Rapid Economic Developement (Environment

  • Pollution of nearby land and rivers as toxic waste is dumped or leaked.
  • Fumes cause respiratory problems.
  • 80% of forests are cut down for logging, agriculture and urban development.
  • TRaffic congestion creates high levels of pollution.
  • Tin mining led to soil erosion and toxic water supply.
  • Oil spills have affected the water supply.
  • Loss of some animals and nature.
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Torr Quarry Somerset - Modern Industry

  • Being restored to create wildlife habitats.
  • Limestone Characteristics will make it look more natural.
  • Trees and plants to be planted to blend in with the surroundings.
  • Monitoring of noise, vibrations, airborne emissions and water quality.
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Soth Cambridgeshire - Population Growth

  • Lack of affordable housing
  • HIgh petrol prices
  • Increased job creation
  • More visitors
  • Younger people move away
  • Increasing ageing population
  • Reduction of public transport.
  • Disruption of community spirit.
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Chambamonter Micro-hydro Scheme - Renewable Energy

  • Using the high rainfall and steep slopes make the area ideal for exploiting water power as a renewable energy resource.
  • Supplies energy in the winter
  • Improved schooling facilities
  • Street lights have been set up
  • Healthcare has improved due to medication refrigerators.
  • Regulating the flow of water will prevent the risk of flooding.
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Arctic - Exploiting Energy

  • Oil spills will be hard for the environment to recover from.
  • Very expensive to transport and pay workers.
  • Work would be restricted due to strict environmental rules
  • 13% of worlds undiscovered oil supply. This would make a lot of money.
  • 30% of natural gas reserves. This would make a lot of money.
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davey boi


pretty good revision resource for night before exam

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