Cold Environments Landforms

  • Created by: Rebecca
  • Created on: 09-05-11 19:30

Cirques or Corries

Description- Armchair-shaped hollows of rock, with a steep back wall and flat base, sometimes containing a lake.

Formation-The build up of snow which melts and freexes over time. Freeze thaw weathering occurs which opens up a bit of and indent and then rotational slip along with plucking abrasion and weathring help to make it into a corrie.


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Description- a sharp narrow ridge of rock tgar resists erosion by a glacier.

Formation- Formed where two cirques form back to back, e.g. Striding Edge in the Lake District.


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Pyramidal Peaks

Description- the top of a mountain.

Formation- Formed where three or more corriess from back to back, e.g. the Matterhorn.


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U-Shaped Valley

Description- U-shaped valleys with steep sides and flat bottoms.

Formation- Caused by abrasion of a glacier, e.g. Wast Water in the Lake District.


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Truncated Spurs

Description- Areas of land projecting from the valley side that have been removed.

Formation- Formaed when interlocking spurs of a river valley are smoothed off by a glacier moving down the valley, e.g. Blencathra in the Lake District


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Hanging Valley

Description-on the side of the main valley.

Formation- Formed when a smaller tributary glacier joins a larger valley glacier. this valley is found higher above the main valley floor, e.g. Milford Sound in New Zealand.


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Rock Steps

Description- a hard rock lip on the edge of a corrie.

Formation- Formed when a corrie has been eroded. The rock that makes the lip is hard rock therefore can not be eroded which leaves it stickingt out a little bit. this leaves a corrie as there is a hollow in the ground.

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Description- A valley submerged in sea water.

Formation- Formed when a glacial trough is flooded by the sea after the sea levels rose due to the ice ages melting and submerged the lower parts of glacial valleys, e.g. the coast of Norway.


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Roche Moutonnée

Description- Small areas of rock on the valley floor are not always completely removed.

Formation- Formed where a glacier move over a harder band of rock.


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Rock Drumlins

Description- streamlined teardrop-shaped pieces of rock that lack a jagged lee slope.

Formation- Formed from unsorted till and found on low-land plains such as the central lowlands of scotland.


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Crag and Tail

Description- A mass of rock—the crag—lying in the path of a glacier which protects the softer rock in the lee beyond it—the tail.

Formation- Formed where a large mass of resistant rock followed by a tail of less resistant rock are met by a glacier, e.g. Royal Mile in Edinburgh.

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Description- Lines gouged in the bedrock.

Formation- Formed as a glacier drags rock underneath the ice (sub-glacial material).

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Description- Large Boulders

Formation- Formed when parts of a mountain have been taken off by the glacier and then moved down the valley from there orginal site. They are then dropped once enough melting has occured.


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Lateral Moraine

Description- Long piles of glacial debris found along side the sides of a valley.

Formation-Formed from material carried along the edges of the galcier.


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