GEOGRAPHY GCSE - a tourist's world

Geography GCSE - A tourist's world

6.1 Growth of the tourist industry

6.2 Resort development

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6.3 Effects of tourist industry growth

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6.4 Eco-tourism

  • Created by: Denise
  • Created on: 22-06-11 12:26

6.1a) The social, economic and political causes of

Increase in leisure time: 
-Shorter working hours (in 1950s, 50hrs 6 times a week.. now 35-40hrs mon-fri)
-More paid holidays entitlement(In 1980s 18days, now 28 paid days) 
-Ageing population ( they have disposable money and time)

- high tech nowadays (book hotels and air tickets online more efficiently and quickly) 
eg) teletext -> online booking from home -> print tickets

Product developement:
-In 1950s the Butlin holiday camps were first invented. Nowadays we look for theme park and resort packages  

-Now it's easy to travel to most countries with visas thus, increasing migration population
-Some countries eg) North Korea do not welcome tourists due to national security
-EU countries have established a common currency, thus tourists can take weekend trips and relax across boarders. 

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Greater wealth: 
-minimum wages -> 59% increase since 1998, thus giving low paid workers an opportunity to go on holiday aswell
-Ageing population -> more people with pensions -> more time and money to contribute to the economy eg) theme parks aimed at elderlies since they have discounted tickets
-More disposable income --> Average wage for both HICs&MICs in 2008 is 23,000 english pounds. 
-Two income families -> in 2008, 68% of mothers had jobs. Nowadays, both parents work -> more income -> can spend on luxuries such as holidays
-Fewer children--> in UK 1970s, average of 2.4 kids, now its 1.8kids per family. -> less money being spent raising children -> more money for luxuries (approx. 200,000 pounds to raise a child to 18 years old) 
Currency exchange rates:
-between 2007-2008, the USA had a 20% increase in UK tourists because the exchange rate was $2: 1 pound
Transport development:
- motorways allow holidaymakers to reach destination more quickly -> saves time -> saves gas expense -> more people do this
-budget planes eg) easy jet -> make travelling much cheaper -> more people

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6.1b) Holiday destinations offer a variety of phys

Physical attractions: 

  • blue clear skies
  • clear blue seas
  • environment 
  • view
  • palm trees
  • fresh air
  • sunshine
  • white sand

Human attractions:

  • Hotels
  • Museums 
  • Theme parks
  • City - shopping - bars - entertainment  
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6.1c) Different types of holiday.

1. Wedding:
- Wedding ceremony & honey moon package
-usually tropical exotic places such as Maldives eg) Virgin holidays company to book packages

2. Backpacking:
-aimed usually at students on gap year since this appeals to the younger market
-budget hotels or camping which are low cost & independent  

3. Adventure:
-appeals to both ends of the scales, either the youthful group, or the active retired over 50 market.
-places such as Kilimanjaro, provides thrils, high risk and high activity
- eg) Exodus company

4. Packages:
-appeals to family since everything is included - transport - food - accommodation - tour 
-good information from brochures  

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6.2a) The Butler model of resort development.


Just know the 7 steps - Emma Imitates Daniel Cause She Drowned Rupert  

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Emma = Exploration
- This is when a small amount of tourists visit
-The main attraction is the nature and environment

Imitates= Involvement
- Visitors increase
-host community provide small hotels and organise events

Daniel = Development
-Visitors continue to increase
-host community provides holiday packages to attract more tourists
-main attraction is natural and cultural
-BUT built attractions start
-becomes a known tourist destination 

-visitors gradually increasing
-transport and routes are improved
- local community rely on tourism income
-many facilities built
-may have some resentment to changes  

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-visitor number decreasing 
-because resort gets too crowded
-the environment is destroyed
-facilities & services become run down
Drowned= Decline
- visitor numbers decrease dramatically
-local community deeply affected -> they relied on tourism -> loose their jobs
-reputation ruined

Rupert = Rejuvenation
- visitors increase
-involves substantial investment to improve facilities to gain tourists back  

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6.2b) The development of an EU resort related to t

1. Exploration
1735 -> first guest house to accomodate few tourists 
- main attraction was sea (wealthy people would horse ride by the shore) 

2. Involvement
1780s -> transport developes
1840-1846 -> railway built which attracted day trippers

3. Development
1863-> Pier opens which made transport more convenient
1870-> Open air dancing on roof

1870s-> built facilities (aviaries, lakes, football fields, skating rink)
1932-> first blackpool carnival opens
1931-> 3,850,000 VISITORS!

5. Stagnation
1970s-> zoo opens (to continue to attract tourists)
        -> transport such as roads are developed  

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6. Decline
1987-> 22% decrease in hotel occupancy
        ->7.5million to 3.9million decrease in annual day visitis
         -> 800million pounds to 500mil decrease money spent by overnighters
1990-> Sealife centre opens to try and rejuvenate

7. Rejuvenate
2009-> Substantial schemes completed costing over 80million pounds
2003-> 400,000 m^2 of casino, lesuire activities, offices and airport land use
       -> 26,700 jobs created
2004-> 11million visitors! 
2005-2008 -> upgrade! (bigger hotels, bigger parking lots, more rooms in hotels, wider roads etc)  

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6.3a) The social, economic and environmental effec

LIC- Zanzibar, Africa 

Economical: +$220million made a year from tourism 
+jobs created for locals to work in hotels
-jobs in the hotels (eg Zanzibar Serena hotel) are low paid & menial
-hotels have fenced off beaches to make theme private -> fishermen can't fish since they don't have access -> areas where they do have access, the fish have been scared off by tourists -> no fish -> no money

Environmental: + Stone town is a "world heritage site" -> protected from tourism development, unless the changes helps conserve the buildings.
+The Zanzibar serena hotel uses its tourism money earned to improve buildings in stonetown
-coral reefs being destroyed since tourist breaks pieces off to take home
-sewage in deposed into the sea (from hotels) -> pollutes water 

Social: + Internet access has improved since tourists demand this, thus locals now have access to the internet in cyber cafes 
+new ferry terminal has been built (1000 locals and tourists use this everyday)  

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HIC - Aiyia Napa, Cyprus

Economical: + Tourism provides 20% of Cyprus' GDP 
+jobs created for locals (eg Adams Beach hotels) -> multipler effect
-Hotels are seasonal (only 30% occupancy in the winter) -> many staff not needed
-fewer people working on agricultural due to the attraction of better paying jobs in hotels

Social: +Local youth enjoys the nightlife (eg Mamobar)
+more bus services to the capital, Larnica
-the original inhabitants of Aiyia Napa have migrated to a new village due to tourists' behaviour
-local fishermen have no fish to catch since they have been scared off -> now, they take tourists on boat tours

Environmental: +all new hotels are built with sewage facilities & fresh water supper
+beaches have been protected for green & hawk bill turtles to lay their eggs
-turtles no longer go to the same beach to lay their eggs, move somewhere else
-massive new buildings next to Nissi Beach -> ruins aesthetic value and waste is disposed into the sea 

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6.4 A study of an eco-tourist destination to show

Gambia, Africa "Footsteps Resort"

What is Eco-Tourism?
"The process which meets the needs of the present tourists and host communities while protecting and enhancing the needs of the future generations

+all huts are made from local wood & materials
+wind turbines and solar panels used to generate electricity
+hot water for showers is heated by the sun (instead of normal heaters)
+all fruits and veggies are grown in the area (mangoes/bananas)
+water from showers and sinks, reused for irrigation
+reed beds used to remove impurities in pools(instead of chlorine)
+composting toilets (harmful substances are removed -> then used as compost) 

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+employees recieve health and dental care
+all 22 employees are from the local village
+open all year (seasonal employment not an issue)
+preserves culture (souvenir shops sells locally made objects) 

+20% of profit goes to the local community
+22 employees from the local community
+all furniture made by the locals  

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Really helps a lot thanx:)



Brilliant- simple and straight to the point. Gave me everything I needed to know for my exam. Really appriciated it, thank you! 



Very useful and made revising much easier! Thanks :)

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