Healthy Living - A2 Psychology


Theories of Health Belief - HBM


-> Severity/Susceptibility/Cues to Action/Costs/Benefits


  • Parents beliefs + attitudes correlated with administering asthma medication
  • costs e.g. chemist being far away affected if it was given

-> Costs of the health behaviour had a high impact on administering medication.

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Theories of Health Belief - Locus of Control

Locus of Control?

-> Internal = you have control

-> External = fate

-> Wallston - High internal = quit smoking

Normal et al

  • Questionnaire on smoking/diet/exercise/alcohol made index and correlated with LOC
  • Positive correlation with Internal LOC and index
  • Negative correlation with External LOC and index

-> Health behaviours can be increased if we make people feel in control.

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Theories of Health Belief - Self Efficacy

Self Efficacy

-> Believe in ability

-> Bandura - due to past experiences

-> Vicarious experiences = someone else/Verbal persuassion-"you can do it"/Emotional arousal - too much anxiety

Murray and Mcmillan

  • SR on breast screening behaviour, health beliefs/motivations and confidence
  • More confidence = more breast screening

-> Self efficacy = predictor of health behaviour

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Theories of Health Belief - Evaluation


P.apps - e.g. Murray - increase self efficacy by showing others success


e.g. Murray - down to own beliefs


e.g. Norman - Blames Locus of Control


e.g. Becker - only focus' on five factors as theory of health belief - ignores LOC

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Methods of Health Promotion - Media Campaign

Media Campaign?

-> Provides information to change behaviour

-> e.g. Chip pan fire ad 1976-1984


  • See effect of media campaign - regions in UK
  • Gathered statistics and 2 surveys
  • Chip pan fires reduced (25%) + awareness of them increased (12% to 28% Yorkshire)

-> Effective method of promoting healthy behaviour

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Methods of Health Promotion - Legislation


-> Forced into healthy behaviours with a law

-> Operant conditioning


  •  Questionnaire on helmet usage, knowledge of law, ad campaigns and peer pressure
  • Howard county with law 11.4 to 37.4 helmet usage - biggest improvement

-> Law is more effective than media campaign.

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Methods of Health Promotion - Fear Arousal

Fear Arousal

-> Increases percieved threat

-> gives emotional arousal which causes change in behaviour

Janis and Feshback

  • Min - diagrams/xrays of tooth decay/ Moderate- less graphic images than strong/ Strong - gruesome pictures of tooth decay and gum diesease 
  •  Minimal fear changed behaviour most

-> Fear appeal = effective but if too strong then the effect drops.

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Methods of Health Promotion - Evaluation

EFFECTIVE - e.g. Cowpe, Dannenburg + J and F prove.

HIGH EV - e.g. Cowpe - real life ad campaign/ Dannenburg - real law enforced.

LOW EV - e.g. J+F = lecture

FALSIFIABILITY - e.g. Dannenburg questions media campaigns

ETHICS - Pop - e.g. J+F = gruesome images

SAMPLE - e.g. J+F use year 10 USA students

INVALID - e.g. J+F and Dannenburg use self reports so may lie

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Adherence to Medical Regimes - Reasons for Non-Adh

Reasons for Non-Adherence?

-> Rational reasons = uncertain if works/ side effects/ believe diagnosis is wrong therefore leads to them deciding not to adhere.


  • Looked at reasons why not take meds that would extend life
  • 15% of hypertensive patients stopped taking meds due to side effects
  • 8% stopped taking due to sexual problems

-> If the costs outweigh the benefits it reduces the chance of adherence.

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Adherence to Medical Regimes - Measures of Non-Adh

Measures of Non-Adherence

-> Different ways of measuring are; ask if taking(SR)/ Monitor medicine bottoles(Beh)/Test chemicals in body(physiological)


  • Beliefs and attitudes of parents correlated w/ kids inhalers administered
  • If costs outweight benefits then unlikely to administer meds.
  • Blood tests to validate claim of medication

-> Using physical tests to check if symptoms are improving is an effective way to measure non-adherence

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Adherence to Medical Regimes - Improving non-adher

Improving non-adherence?

-> Behavioural

->Operant conditioning

-> Funhaler - reduce boredom

Watt et al

  • 1 week = inhaler 2nd week = funhaler
  • after each week parental questionnaire
  • 38% more medicated with funhaler than inhaler

-> child friendly features act as reward and encourages adherence

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Adherence to Medical Regimes - Evaluation

USEFUL - e.g. P.apps - Watt et al/ Knowledge - Becker

VALID - e.g. Becker - blood tests

RELIABLE - e.g. Becker - easy to replicate - standardised

INVALID - e.g. Watt et al - self report - lie

NOT RELIABLE - e.g. Watt et al - different results with different sample

LIMITED SAMPLE - e.g. Watt et al - 32 children

NOT USEFUL - e.g. Watt et al - limited sample limits p.apps

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