Internal Faction and Pressures from abroad


Aims and Influence of the Reformist Faction

CW and those around him like CM used their influence with H to try push for increased reformist policies .CW+CM wanted to use the break with R to introduce religious ideas whch were gaining acceptance in Europe, ideas most closely associated with Martin Luther

Neither CW+CM  were openly PT, to do so would result in a charge in heresy. Nevertheless from the mid 1530s they began to promote policies such as the intro of the B in English + sought to undermine the belief in salvation through good works through the Act of Ten Articles+ the Bishops' Book

JS died in childbirth in 1537- H resistant to pressure to marry again but was aware of the precarious nature of only have one son. H became K after his brother died

The Act of the Six Articles passed in 1539, reinforced the seven sacraments and the importance of the Mass showed H's personal coservatism in matters of doctrine

The Act was a political defeat for CW, CM + other reformist leaders, led to Bishop of Worcsester Hugh Latimer and Bishop of Salisbury Nicholas Shaxton to resign their sees.

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Aims and Influence of the Reformist Faction 2

The Act of Six Articles gave hope to the conservatives at court that they might yet be able to assert their authority +CW's failure to find a suitable wife in the fiasco of the AOC marriage opened up opportunites for those who hadn't enjoyed influence since the late 1520s

CW exploited H's unmarried state to secure a marriage alliance as a bulwark against the unified might of F + HRE and to reinforce reformist influence at Court , the choice of bride was not straightforward; few countries prepared to ally with a country which had rejected the authority of the P and of those that were few suitable women were keen to face the prospect that they may be beheaded

AOC was sister of Duke of Cleves, a German State was identified as a potential 4th wife. Cleves had also broken with R but had retianed an essentially C doctrine. CW dispatched Hans Holbein the Younger to paint portraits of AOC and her sister. On the basis of the portrait a marriage was arranged

Ceremony took place in Jan 1540, but AOC proved to be far from what H had expected in terms of looks. H was unimpressed by his 1st night with AOC. Later H ordered CW to seek an annulment on the grounds of non-consummation

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Aims and Influence of the Reformist Faction 3

Unsuitability of AOC as a wife for H resulted in increasing criticism of the reformist faction

Despite the slow process of getting the annulment for AOC, H rewarded CW, April 1540 he was created Earl of Essex and Lord Great Chamberlain

Critiscism from the Conservative faction was heightened by CW's actions regarding a heretical group in Calais, reports of an investigation into this group forwarded by Lord Lisle showed that although he himself have tried to remove the heretics, CW had allowed them to stay

10th June CW was arrested on a charge of treason, taken to TOL. CW was not formally tried but an Act of Attainder was passed agasint him. He was executed on 28th July 1540

 The downfall of CW was a personal tragedy for H's chief minister but was consistent with the way H had dealt with those who had ceased to enable him to achieve his ambitions

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The King's Reaction and Cromwell's Fall

CW's downfall had short and long term consequences. Most signif is that it brought about the end of gov by a single minister and a return to a form of gov which was dependent on the interplay of faction

Been much debate on whether H manipulated the factions or if the factions manipulated H. Until the last few days of his life H remained very lucid and in control of his gov. H's dominating personaility, which may have been screened from public view by CW, was exposed by CWs downfall as was his belief in his own honour.

His sense of 'honour' was based on military success, his view on religion, both personally + in terms of the COE, and his sexual honour, ideally the K should have a clutch of legitimate and illegitimate kids

After 1540 H was his own minister, but his increasing ill-health meant that he had to establish the conditions in which E could succeed. There was no attempt to remove all of CW's placemen from the PCm or Privy Chamber after their master's fall. Significantly, CM remained as Archbishop of Caterbury

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The Conservative Faction

The conservatives promoted a greater emphasis on the seven sacraments and the belief in purgatory and salvation through good works rather than by faith alone

Norfolk used his position in the PC to present another niece, the teenage Catherine Howard, as a physically more appealing bride. CH was introduced to H as Stephen Gardiner's (Bishop of Winchester)  house + a member of the conservative faction, H was immediately attracted to CH's looks + lively personality. CH lacked the maturity+ shrewdness of AB, she was little more than a pawn in the elaborate game being played by her family in attempting to gain precedence at Court. Her upbringing left her exposed to a range of liaisons which were not suitable for a queen which would make her position vulnerable in the future

H married CH in August 1540, just over a year later she was accused of adultery. During their year or marrige H appears to have deliriously happy + constantly gave presents+ political favours to CH. The demands for political favours were fed through Lady Rochford who was CHs minder at court. Lady Rochford also facilitated secret assignations between CH + other men, including Thomas Culpepper - could be seen as outrageous or a long term strategy, trying to help CH concieve a son (incase H couldn't) to secure the Tudor dynasty + the Howard faction would be secure

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The Conservative Faction 2

The stories of CH's behaviour became harder to suppress + details were provided by a Lutheran sympathiser whose sister was part of CH's retinue.

Howard's political rivals used the evidence to bring about CH's downfall + her political backers. CM passed the details to H in a sealed envelope at Mass on All Souls Day 1541.

Initially H refused to believe the stories but the evidence especially that gained from torture, was over whelming.

CH + Lady Rochford were executed in Feb 1542, the two men who she had affairs with were executed in Dec 1541

Norfolk + his close associates weren't punished, they were allowed to remain away from court in disgrace. Their triumph in the fall of CW had ended not in disaster but in being eclipsed by others

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The Impact of Foreign Affairs

H had a number of foreign policy aims which changed over the course of his reign, 1509-47 depending on domestic circumstances + external threats

1) Regain control of the former French territories, all E K's from Edward III claimed to be K of F, attacking F had implications for relations with S due to the Auld Alliance between F+S

2) Establish himself as an equal of F1+CV, H was very concerned about his rep. Gaining honour+glory particularly through war was a major driving force for H

3) To maintain links with the Netherlands. English cloth trade was dependent on the Antwerp market, + the Netherlands was part of the territory which belonged to CV, CV was in conflict with F1 for much of this period

4) To secure the Tudor dynasty. This aim of H affected foreign + domestic policy. H+COA's marriage had been part of an attempt to solidify the anti-French alliance

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The Impact of Foreign Affairs 2

Pope, CV + F1 keen to ensure the return of E to the Roman Catholic faith.

1538, P actively called on the C powers of Europe to mount a crusade to return the CIE to R.

E was definately in a minor league of powers, but had traditionally supported the HRE in the Habsburg-Valois conflict. Until the whole COA thing CV had been E's natural ally due to the trade links with Netherlands. Marriage to AB led H to turn to F1. For F1 his relationship with the papacy was > than his relationship with H, F1 did not need the support of E as between 1529-1536 there was peace, albeit an uneasy one between CV+F1

1536 war broke out between CV+F1, had the circumstances been different H may have tried to exploit the vulnerabilities of F. COA dead so no longer a personal cause of conflict between CV+H. Overtures were made by the Imperial ambassador Chapuys

Decision to break with R led the laity to fear that H would destroy the parish churches + other things so resulted in domestic discontent. By Autumn H was forced to use all his military resources to crush the Pilgrimage of Grace

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The Impact of Foreign Affairs 3

1538 the continental situ deteriorated dramatically, as far as E was concerned, with the declaration of a ten year truce between F1+CV. CW saw the Truce of Nice as a massive threat to E and led him to seek allies in Germany. His concerns were increased by the Papal Bull which excommunicated H, excommunication accompanined by the withdrawal of F and Imperial ambassadors from London.

CW believed the P was encouraging F1+CV to suport a crusade against E to return the CIE to R. Partly in response to this perceived threat, CW held negotiations with several Protestant German Princes who were organised into a group called the Schmalkadic League which had been organised to defend PTism against the militant Cism of CV

H sent Duke of Norfolk to F + Sir Thomas Wyatt sent to the Imperial Court. Togther DON + TW were able to exploit divisions based on plots being conjured by both sides against each other. H sought to use these divisions to protect the CIE from the threat of  a papal crusade

By winter 1540-41 Bishop of Winchester Stephen Gardiner was sent to the Imperial Court to negotiate an alliance with CV, which was agreed in sping 1541, bringing to end the period of diplomacy + lack of military engagement

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