Language in the media


What is intrumental power?

Instrumental power reflects established relationships and is often overt.

It is often evident in declarative, grammatically correct and confident language.

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What is influential power?

Influential power seeks to build relationships, used by those who aim to influence you.

It can be detected in more subtle, personal (coloquil) and persuasive language.

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David Crystal argues we speak for two reasons?

Language has a transactional function which focuses on getting things we want.

Language has a relational function which focusing on developing relationships.

  • It is transactional function, that relates best to power, but in order to maintain or gain power over the audience we often make our language seem like it has a relational function, blurring the line between the two.
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What is synthetic personalisation?

A concept by Norman Fairclough that highlights the artificial friendliness used by powerful institutions in order to reinforce their power.

The illusion of making each person feel as if they are being treated as an induvidual.

  • Usually spotted through the use of personal pronouns, cultural references, informal lexis and grammer choices.
  • Manipulation of langauge to draw the implied reader or ideal reader into the ideology of the speaker/writer.
  • Making the reader feel like the ideal reciever of the message - creating the sense of feeling special and important which boosts self-esteem.
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Who are the 6 main gender theorists?

  • Cameron & diversity.
    • Women vary and the situations they are in vary.
  • Butler & performativity.
    • Women subconciously play their role as do men; it's all acting.
  • Coates and Tannen & difference.
    • Women are not the same as men; they hold different cultural values.
  • Spender & dominance.
    • Women are opressed; language denotes males as superior; males use language to opress.
  • Lakoff & deficit.
    • Women are weak; they are complicit and this is evident in their language.
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What is the difference between determinism and ref

Determinism argues that the language we use controls our thoughts and feelings.

  • Witgenstien.

Reflectionism argues that the language we use merely reflects our thoughts and feelings.

  • Pinker.
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What does Einsentien argue?

Argues that we are esentially always the same, but that personal and social change is given possibilities by technology and not constriant by it.

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What does McLuhan argue?

Argued that our identity and beliefs are shaped or determined by the media we use.

  • Technological determinism.
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What is lexical gap theory?

New inventions need new words (neologisms).

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