Geography and Economy of the Latin states

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 21-12-19 17:57


  • The County of Edessa had local Armenians, the Euphrates river and crops and livestock.
  • It was the first crusader state, ruled by Baldwin I then B2.
  • Turkish invasion had been a threat since 1127- in 1104, B2 was captured and Tancred became regent of Edessa. He was forced to relinquish his role by B1. 
  • When King Fulk died, the Franks were preoccupied so the Turks attacked.
  • It was captured in 1143, and in 1150 its castles were sold to the Byzantine Emperor by B3. 
  • Outremer did not have natural boundaries- the Tarsus mountains in the North and Lebanese mountians in the East, and rivers such as the Jordan had gaps and fords.
  • Deserts were never used as natural boundaries, so land was often contested. 
  • Edessa was vulnerable to Mosul and Aleppo.
1 of 8


  • The Principality of Antioch had Christians and Arabs, and the St Symeon port.
  • It bordered Byzantium, Edessa and the sea.
  • 1099, Bohemond of Taranto became its first ruler.
  • He was not initially under Jerusalem's power. The Byzantines, Turks and Franks claimed authority- they accepted the Franks to survive.
  • Bohemond I was captured in 1110 and replaced by his infant son Bohemond II.
  • Bohemond II died in 1130, and his widow Alice wanted to rule on her own.
  • Fulk married Alice's daughter Constance to Raymond of Poitiers.
  • Antioch started paying homage to the Byzantines for protection.
  • 12th century, Saladin invaded Latakia and Antioch- Richard III negotiated its freedom after the 3rd crusade, and it survived the 12th century.
2 of 8


  • The County of Tripoli had Christians and Arabs and the ports of Tortosa and Tripoli.
  • It was known for sugar cane, olives and weaving goods. 
  • It was the last state, taken by Raymond of Toulouse, who took Tortosa then Tripoli.
  • As a vassal of Jerusalem, it had protection if it kept alliegence. 
  • 1109 succession crisis, BI divided it between William Jordan, count of Cerdagne, and Bertrand, son of Raymond of Toulouse.
  • When William died Bertrand took the whole of Tripoli with his son Pons.
  • Count Raymond III was imprisoned by the Turks and king Amalric raised 80k bezants to free.
  • The Hospitallers and Templars were given castles.It tried being independent but eventually it had to rely on Jerusalem. It was under threat by Asassins and Homs Muslims. 
3 of 8


  • The Kingdom of Jerusalem contained Christians, Jews, Arabs and Samaritans.
  • It had olives, wheat, fruit, and traded sugar and spices. 
  • 1100 Christmas day, Baldwin I crowned. Godfrey had been lord protector.
  • It comprised of the city, southern Judea, a costal area round Jaffa and Galilee.
  • By 1175, 10 famlies controlled 24 lordships, they were strong enough to overthrow the king.
  • B1 tried keeping land for the royal demense, and confiscated land from rebels.
  • It had churches like the Holy Sepulchre, and the most powerful Christian patriarchate.
  • It was the best defended state, with feifs protecting land. 
4 of 8


  • Acre and Tyre were the main ports, letting goods and people arrive easily.
  • They joined Outremer to trade with the West, Egypt, and Muslim and Christian cities.
  • They exchanged spices and sugar for cotton, metal, and food
  • Italians, especially from Genoese trading timber, traded from the West.
  • Acre, Tyre and Jaffa were close to Damascus and convenient to reach.
  • The most famous dyeworks at Tyre were owned by Syrians.
  • Muslim sea captains were offered safe conduct by the Kings of Jerusalem.
  • Outremer’s largest trading partner was Damascus, who they invaded in the 2nd crusade.
  • While some trade helped Eastern relations, most of Outremer’s trade was with the West.  
5 of 8


  • Outremer had to trade with the Muslims to make revenue. 
  • There were mosques at Acre and Tyre, and a converted shared mosque at Acre.
  • BIII allowed Abu Ibn Izz-ad Din to trade with Egypt (Alexandria) and Tyre
  • They co-operated to raise profit for the local lords and taxes.
  • Sugar had a duty of 5 bezants for every 100 bezants traded.
  • Shoes brought by Muslims had an extra 10% duty.
  • Cardamon had 10 bezants and 5 karoubles for each 100 bezants.
  • Exports to non-Christians had an extra 1 karouble duty for each 1 bezant traded. 
  • Trade created co-operation but not complete peace.
6 of 8

Settlement in Outremer

  • This only happened after the first crusade, since in the 2nd the land was already conquered and crusaders owed loyalty to thier kings, who already had land.
  • PIlgrims constantly travelled to Jerusalem.
  • The economic state of Europe included famine, floods, taxation, and difficulties with labour service agreements which let peasants farm land for free. 
  • In 1150, a cobbler from Chalons-sur-Marne left for Outremer to avoid tax.
  • PIlgrims were attracted by the unpopulated, fertile land in the East.
  • However, the economic risk undertaken by crusade hugely outweighted the benefits.
  • There were 200 colonial settlements in Outremer, with land for farming, churches and roads. 
7 of 8


  • B3 allowed settlers long term housing leases , free facilities such as mills and olive groves, and a 1/7 tax of crops to Baldwin. Migrants could also fight for Outremer.
  • Italian quarters from Genoa, Pisa and Venice are in Antioch and Tyre.
  • 1/3 of Tyre was given to  Venice. The Genoese had 13 houses in Antioch.
  • There were no forced conversions since there were diverse communities.
  • Acre contained Pilgrims and merchants from Alexandria, Damascus and Aleppo.
  • Tyre and Tripoli had large Muslim populations.
  • By attacking the locals, the Franks would starve so they were forced to be accepting. 
8 of 8


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The crusades resources »