Media- topic 1


Media- topic 1- traditional and new media- 1

What is the traditional media?

Traditional media is media that communicates uniform messages in one way, allowing no interaction to large mass audiences- which are assumed to have the same characterisitics and interests. There is often little communication choice with traditional media. 

Give 3 examples of traditional media?

Terrestrial TV channels, radio and newspapers.

What is the new media?

The new media refers to the inreractive screen-based, digitial technology involving the inergration of images, text and sound, and the distribution and consumption of new digitized media content.

Give 3 examples of the new media?

Computers & internet, satelitte TV and electronic ebooks.

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Media- topic 1- the power of the media- 1

How has the media changed over the past few years?

  • More people now have a digital TV (96%) and viewers wtahced on average 4 hours of TV per day.
  • More people have internet access- 77% of people have a broadband connection.

The media has become a gigantic international bussiness, with instant news coming from every part of the globe. The internet now has millions more people going online every year providing insttant access to huge amounts of information and entertainment from the enire globe. 

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Media- topic 1- the power of the media- 2

How has society become more media saturated?

Society has become more media saturated, with the media becoming a more important source of information, entertainment and leisure activities for large numbers of people. The media has become a key agency of secondary socialisation, the media now has an important formative influence on individuals sense of identity and cosumer choices. Most of our taken for granted knowledge, opinions and asttitdes are based on evidence which the media provides.

What effect has society becoming more media saturated had on individuals?

Now if the media did not report an event, distorted it or made it up, the only people likely to know about it would be those directly involved. For most individuals the media is their onlt source of evidence, and it colour, shapes and constructs their view of the world. 

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Media- topic 1- formal controls on the media-1

How is media freedom controlled?

Laws are put in place to restrict the medias freedom to report anything they choose in anyway they like. For example, the laws of libel forbid the publication of an untrue statement about a person which might bring him or her to ridicule, dislike or hostility in society.

What is the role of Ofcom?

Ofcom was established in 2003 as a powerful media regulator, with responsibilities acrross TV, radio, telecommunications and wireless communication servces.

What responsibilities does Ofcom have?

  • Furthering the interests of consumers.
  • Securing the best use of the radio spectrum.
  • Ensuring a wide range of TV, radio electronic media and communications networks are available in the UK. 
  • Protecting the public from any offensive, or potentially harmful effects of broadcast media, and safegarding people from being unfairly treated on TV and radio programmes/
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Media- topic 1- how governments control media outp

In what ways does the government try to influence and control the output of the media?

  • Leaks and off the record briefings- informal briefings of journalists through which governments try to manage what is reported in the news. 
  • The use of spin doctors-  who try and manipualte the media by providing a favourable slant to a potentially unpopular or contreversial news item. 
  • Refusal to allow some forms of computer software, and the use of filtering and surviellance software to block access to some internet sites. 
  • Surviellance of emails, monitorting of websites and intercepts of mobile calls. 

Give an example of spin doctors?

In Australia they have a communications team which tells politicians how to act.

Give an example of surviellance by the government?

The whitehouse is using the cloud to look at peoples personal data.

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Media- topic 1- ownership of the media- 1

Who has the ownership of the media in the UK?

The ownership of the media is concentrated into the hands of a few large companies interested in making profits- 86% of the media is controlled by just 4 companies and over half by 2. 

Give 4 features of media ownership?

  • Concentraition of ownership- most of the media is concentrated into the hands of few large companies. 
  • Vertical intergration- the idea that one media company can own several stages of the production process. E.g. news corporations own film and TV studios, but also sky.
  • Horizontal inergration- the idea that media owners have inerests in a range of media.
  • Global ownership- media ownership is international- owners have global media empires with interests in different contries across the world. 
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Media- topic 1- the media and ideology- 1

What is the ideological role of the media concerned with?

The extent to which the media socialises audiences into a particular view of the world and society in which they live in. 

What is the dominant ideology?

The dominant ideology is one which justifies the social advantages of the wealthy, powerful and influential groups in society, and justifies the disadvantages of those who lack wealth, power and influence. 

What are the ideological state apparatuses?

The dominant ideology is spread through society by the ideological state apparatuses. These are agencies such as the mass media and the education system which induce in the mass of people a false conciouseness of their exploitation and their real interests. 

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Media- topic 1- the media and ideology- 2

How does the mass media spread the dominant ideology?

The media controls access to the knowledge which people have about what is happening in society, and encourage them to accept the uneuqal society in which they live. 

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Media- topic 1- control of the media and media con

What is the manipulatiive or instrumentalist approach and how does it effect the individuals who work in the media?

It is a traditional marxist perspective. It suggests that owners directly control media content, and manipulate that content and media audiences to protect their profits, by spreading the dominant ideology. Media editors, managers and journalistts have little choice other than to run the media within the boundaires set down by the owners as they depend on them for jobs. Therefore, they produced one-sided baised reports which attack, ridicule, or groups which threaten the interests of the dominant class. 

What evidence did Courran and Seaton find which supported the manipulative approach?

They found evidence which suggested that media owners did interfere and manipuualte newspaper content, at the expense of the independence of journalists and editors, to protect their own interests.

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Media- topic 1- control of the media and media con

Give an example of the manipulative approach?

Rupert Murdoch was found to be presenting his own views in Fox news, he also admitted to influencing the Iraq war. 

What does the manipulative approach assume about the media audience?

It asssumes that the audience is passive, a mass of easily manipulated, unthinking and uncritical robots who unquestionly swallow biased reports found in the media content. 

How can the manpulative approach be criticised?

  • Ofcom prevents conglomerates from owning more than a certian percentage of the media.
  • Pluralisits argue that media owners are primarly concerned with making prodits, meaning the media must provide what the audiences not the owners want.
  • It assumes that auidences are passive and vulnerable, but people are able to accept, recject or reinterpret media messages, depending on their individual experiences. 
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Media- topic 1- control of the media and media con

What is the hegemonic approach?

More recent neo-marxist approach. It also suggests that the mass media spreads a dominant ideology, which justifies and legitimizes the power of the ruling class. However, it suggests that although owners have influence, they rarely have diirect day to day control of the media, which is instead left in the hands of managers and journalists. The hegemonic approach suggests that media managers and journalists have some professional independence and they support the dominant ideology by choice. The GMG ponts out that most journalists tend to be white, middle class and their socialisation means they share a simialr view of the world to the dominant class. They have a set of professional values which suggests the way events should be reported, are in keeping with the common sense assumptions of the dominant ideology- this means that the audience is only exposed to a limited range of opinions and anyone who goes against this view are unreasonable. Groupps who threaten the status quo, are presnted as outside the estalished consensus view of the world. 

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Media- topic 1- control of the media and media con

Give an example of the hegemonic approach?

During the recession, the media broadcast information about the recession from the bankers point of view, of how the public should deal with the problem. 

How are the audience viewed in the hegemonic approach?

Audiences are unconciously persauded to see the dominant ideology as a consensus, this encourrages the continuing acceptance of the dominant ideology. 

How can the hegemonic aprroach be criticised?

  • Since the 90's there have been more ethnic minority and female reporters in the news.
  • The hegemonic approach underrates the power and influence of the owners,  as owners do appoint and dismiss managers who step too far out of line, journalists careers are dependent on approval from media owners.
  • Pluralisits argue the new gloablised digital media and the internet has undermined the traditional infulence of media owners.
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Media- topic 1- control of the media and media con

What does the pluralist approach argue?

The pluralist approach argues that media content is driven by the fight for profits through high circulation and audience figures. There is a wse range of competing media outlets e.g. newspapers, which reflect a huge range of audience interests and ideas. The only control over the media is consumer choice, and the media has to be responsive to audiences tastes and wishes otherwise they will go out of business. The competion for audience prevents any one owner or company from dominating the media and media regulators also prevent this. Pluralisits argue that the media are free from government or direct owner control and can present whatever point of view they want. The same goes for journalists who are not simply pawns of their employers pumping out the dominant ideology. 

What view of the audeince does the pluralist approach take?

Audiences are free to cooses in a pick n mix approach to whatever interpretation suits them, due to the wide range of media from which they are able to select. They have the freedom to accept, reject, reinterpret or ignore media content in accordance to their tastes and beliefs. 

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Media- topic 1- control of the media and media con

Give an example for the pluralist approach?

People boycotted the sun after their reporting of the Hillsborough disaster and people also boycotted page 3. 

How can the pluralist approach be criticised?

  • It ignores the idea that only the rich and powerful are able to present their views across popular media. Many people do not read blogs or everday peoples views on social media.
  • Journalists and mediaa writers work  within the constraints the owners place on them.  
  • Not all groups have equal influence on editors and journalsits to get their views across. 
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