Napoleon Foreign Policy

Napoleon Foreign Policy (FP)

  • Created by: cat1232
  • Created on: 12-05-12 17:12

Marengo to Amiens

Marengo (June 1800)

reasons- easy access, Habsburg pressure, royalist threat, justify being 1st consul

smaller army but vicotorious- jusitified 1st consul

Treaty of Lunéville (Feb 1801)

between austria and france- end of second coalition, gained land in italy and germany

Treaty of Amiens (March 1802) (End of second coalition)

reasons- Britian wanted to end war, marengo, loss of allies, lack of resources

treaty broke down when British failed to leave malta and france hollland

Redeclared war May 1803

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Naval Conflict with England

Difficulties- Focussed on continental warfare, Eygptian campaign failed.

Reasons- 3rd coalition, Napoleon claimed crown of Italy, violation of treaties

Battle of Trafalgar (Oct 1805) - British victory - stabalised 3rd coalition

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3rd Coalition (1805-1808)

  • Russia, Britian, Austria, Naples, Sweden and Prussia

Breakdown of coalition

  • Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805)- Defeated Russia (Frozen Lakes)- forced Prussia into war- led to treaty of Pressburg
  • Treaty of Pressburg (December 1805)- Austria withdrew from coalition, end of Holly Roman Empire
  • Jena and Auerstadt- twin defeats of Prussia- Russia alone to fight France
  • Battle of Eylou (February 1807)- victory against Russia- ended 3rd- tilsit
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The Continental System

Reasons- defeat Britain, Britian supplied coalitions, france needed help to deafeat

Started by Berlin Decrees (November 1806)- Gb responded with Orders-in-council

Russia joined after first treaty of tilsit (July 1807) and Prussia after second

Strengthened by Milan decrees and Fountianebleau Decree (1810) which extended seizures all over empire

Success- Worsened british economy- flooded with unsold good

Failure- not consistantly enforced, smuggling, licences to allow trade, continent needed British goods (textiles), customs officials could be bribed, GB exported to americas, damaged France

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Napoleonic Empire

Aims- protect gains, export reforms,give oppressed liberty, ensure end of old regimes

Napoleon told Kings that Civil code would strengthen power

Establishing empire- (started 1804) annexed states (e.g. tuscany) + satellite states (e.g. switzerland)

Pinnacle of empire- 1805/7

Annexed- forced to accept reforms (Spain rebelled), subjected to central authority, created new monarchs etc

Satellite- lack of control produced instability, allowed to keep own government, reforms not spread.

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Decline of Empire

Spanish Ulcer (Peninsular War, 1808)

Joseph made king of Spain- revolt against French rule

Spainish (with British help) force French out and defeat at Toulouse in April 1814

Effects- not popular, harmed reputation, expensive

Defeat of Austria- Napoleon left spain for Danube valley- scoreless war with victories on both sides

Divorce of josephine (end of 1809)- no heir- married neice of marie aintoinette (daughter of austrian emperor) Marie-Louise- Austria and France allied- unpopular

Invasion of Russia (1812)- not enforcing continental system- scorced earth policy- won Battle of Borodino- progressed to Moscow- already destroyed- forced to retreat- Russians destroyed bridges- managed to escape- huge loss of life- show napoleon's bad planning (summer clothes/not enough food)

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Decline of Empire

Fourth Coalition (1813-1815)

members- Russia, prussia, Britain,Austria.

Coalition victory in Battle of the Nations (Leipzig)

Coalition vowed to remain peaceful until France defeated (Treaty of Vienna)

Effects- france wanted to end wars, coalition entered Paris and restored bourbon King (March 1814), napoleon abdicated

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Restoration of Monarchy

Helped by 4th coalition- accepted some revolutionary ideas (biens nationaux) but attempted to restore old regime- established 2 chamber government- rumours caused unpopularity and seemed indecisive.

Elba exile- take advantage of ill feelings towards monarch, promised new beginning and restoration of liberty- returned March 1815- Louis XVIII fled to Belgium

Hundred days- new elections ordered- lafayette elected, bourgeoisie reluctant to support, strong popular support, revolutionary (Acte Additionnel), Waterloo

Acte Additionnel- replaced charter of 1814 by Louis- wanted offer more/defend liberty- declared bourbon monarchy unconstitutional, retained 2 chamber parliament, incorporated liberal reform (freedom of the press). Effects- Bourgeoisie preferred voting by tax, revolutionaries disliked hereditary peerage, west close to civil war, Napoleon seen as liberal, North/south remained royalist.

Battle of Waterloo- Napoleon defeated Prussia (June 1815) hoped to restore empire- defeated and france lost more land.

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Second Restoration and End of Napoleon

Second Restoration

  • Reasons- waterloo, napoleon gave self up to british- imprisoned on st Helena
  • Supporters disarmed and some exiled
  • White Terror in Rhone Valley
  • Bonaparte dynasty excluded from French throne

Napoleonic legend

  • Reasons- napoleon liked propaganda, to be read, present france, and achievements well. Napoleon as saint.
  • First published year after death (1822)- Mémoriale de St Heléne- conversations

Historian's Views

M.Lyons- Continenal system failed due to reasons out of napoleon's control

P.Kennedy- Security of Britain caused collapse of the empire.

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